The Root of Terrorism a la Islamic style

Abul Kasem . e-mail: [email protected]

Chapter One

[A cautionary note: This essay is a twenty parts
series; its content may be deemed offensive to some
readers. The author will not be responsible in the
event any reader feels anger, umbrage, agitated,
distraught and/or derided after reading this serial.
You have been forewarned. Read at your own risk.]

‘They say we are terrorists? They are right-of course
we are. That is what we do for a living’ --Khalid
Shaikh Muhammad

Synopsis

This article investigates the very application of
terror tactic that was used some fourteen hundred
years ago by the very first Jihadists of Islam to gain
booty and become quick-rich through plunder. The main
purpose of this essay is to probe whether a direct
link exists among the Modus Operandi of the Jihadists
(read Islamic Terrorists) of Muhammad’s time and their
counterparts of today. In all, one hundred (100) cases
of armed conflicts were investigated for their cause,
timing, venue and the principal actor/s involved. The
finding of this detail investigation is quite
disturbing indeed; mind-numbing one may say. This
exercise establishes, without any doubt whatsoever,
the uncanny similarities that exist between those
Islamic fighters of Muhammad’s time and their
counterparts of today. It is also found that except
for two or three, all other cases of armed conflict
were due solely to the aggressive terrorist acts of
the Muslim perpetrators. It was invariably the Islamic
Jihadists who usually initiated the conflict, in many
cases without any plausible reason/s and/or without or
slightest provocation. The result of these terror
tactics was that the participant Muslims engaged in
unbound savagery that often included gratuitous
murder, genocide, ethnic cleansing, revenge killings,
political assassinations, and in many cases, simply
plain plunder and armed robbery. Muhammad followed
this path of terror and pillage to reward his
followers with easy and handsome booty, land, other
goods and material benefits. The exercise of terror
and its concomitant gain made the early Jihadists
rich, self-supporting and this was crucial in the
establishment of the authority of Islam in the entire
Arabian Peninsula. Please make no mistake about it.

Most biographers of Muhammad dealt at length with a
handful of well-known wars that were fought between
Muslim soldiers and the infidels’ trained army. These
major combats or wars number around thirteen in all
and they are well documented by many historians.
Nonetheless, it is the so-called minor or the
so-called small-scale skirmishes that stand out as the
most important events to expose the true scale of
savagery, cruelty, barbarism, unbound greed,
treachery, guile and lasciviousness of the early
converts of Islam-this, truly is a surprise discovery
and is the well-kept secret amongst Islamists. It is
rather sad to note that very few biographers/historians
have attempted to investigate in detail these ‘small’ or
‘insignificant’ acts of terror.

Many cruel Sha’ria or Islamic laws were formulated
based on the examples set by Muhammad and his
followers during those violent armed conflicts/terror
campaigns. Plenty of Qur’anic verses also relate to
these combative events. Since Sha’ria laws and the
Qur’an are absolutely immutable and valid for
eternity, therefore, there is no hope that any
harshness of these Islamic ‘divine’ laws can ever be
diminished by reform or through peaceful means.

This prolix article is based on information culled
mainly from impeccable Islamic sources. We must first
of all, realize that these ‘immaculate’ information
were of course, carefully censored, filtered, cleaned,
sanitized and any ‘bad’ and/or the ‘horrendous’
elements surgically removed before they were made
public. Even then, we find enough mind-boggling,
terrible, barbaric and utterly indigestible
events/information buried deep inside those authentic
Islamic books. If true freedom of information was
practiced and no Islamic censorship was in place,
imagine what would have been the content of
un-sanitized, un-censored version of these Holy
resources! A really worrying find of this study is
that the latest English translated versions of the
compilation of Sahih Ahadith have been organised by
‘clinically’ removing those ‘bad,’ ‘terrible’ and
‘horrendous’ Ahadith that make Islam look indeed, a
religion of terror and Bedouin barbarism. To gather
the truth one must refer to the original Sahih Ahadith
and their original translated versions. This latest
attempt of ‘surgery,’ truly, is a clever ploy by the
modern ‘doctors’ of Islam to fool and beguile the
world-now that everyone harbours absolute doubt that
Islam is a religion of peace.

Finally, this study leads the author to the opinion
that Islam and terrorism are completely inseparable.
The root of terror a la Islamic fashion is in the
divine command itself. It is deeply entrenched in the
preachings, commands, injunctions, inspirations,
practices and the examples set by Muhammad and his
contemporary followers, who lived by the sword (read
terror) and used it as the most potent weapon to
subdue their adversaries who happened to cross their
path. If a Muslim follows the ‘Real Islam’-the
unadulterated, pure Islam preached and practiced by
Muhammad, he can’t but be a terrorist-plain and
simple.

    B I B L I O G R A P H Y

    Departing from the conventional practice of
inserting the bibliography at the end of an
article, I have decided to include the
bibliography at the beginning of this essay. This
is done for the convenience of the reader. The
serious reader should keep this bibliography handy
for cross-referencing and verification.
     

   “The Holy Qur’an,” the internet version of
three English translations can be read at:
http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/quran/

   Ali, Abdullah, Yusuf, “The Holy Qur’an:
Translation and Commentary,” Amana Corp.,
Brentwood, Maryland, 1983.

   “The Holy Qur’an,” translated by Maulana
Sher Ali, Islam International Publications
Ltd., Telford, Surrey, U.K., 1997.

   “The Koran, “ Penguin Classic (1956),
translated by N.J. Dawood, Penguin Books,
London reprint, 1999.

   “The Koran,” translated by J.M. Rodwell;
first published in 1909; reissued by
Phoenix Press, London, 1994.

   Pickthall, Mohammad Marmaduke, “The
Meaning of the Glorious Koran, Translation
and Explanation”; reprinted by Adam
Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi,
India, 1996.

   al-Hilali, Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din(Dr.) and
Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan, “The Noble
Qur’an Transliteration in Roman Script And
English Translation of the Meanings,”
Darussalam Publishers, Riyadh, Saudi
Arabia, 1996. [The internet version of the
English translation by these two modern
translators can be read at:  
http://www.witness-pioneer.org/vil/

   Makhlaf, Ash-Shaikh Hasnain Muhammad,
“Kalimatul Qur’an,” translated by Duraid &
Faiz Fatouhi, Kitab Bhavan, 1784 Kalam
Mahal, Daraya Ganj, New Delhi, 2nd. ed.
2002.

   Abu Dawud, Sulayman b. al-Ash’ath,
“Al-Sunaan,” a collection of Hadith,
translated in English by Prof. Ahmad Hasan:
http://www.luc.edu/orgs/msa/abudawud/index.htm

   al-Bukhari, Muhammad b. Ismail b
al-Mughira, “Sahi al-Bukhari,” translated
in English by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan:
http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/bukhari/

   Muslim, Abu al-Hussain b. al-Hajjaj
al-Qushairi, “Sahi Muslim,” translated in
English by Adul Hamid Siddiqui:
http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/muslim/

   Malik, ibn Anas ibn Malik, Abdullah
al-Asbahi al-Himyari, “Muwatta,”
translated in English by A’sha Abdurrahman
at-Tarjumana and Ya’qub Johnson:
http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/muwatta/

   Ibn Ishaq, Muhammad b. Yasr, “Sirat Rasul
Allah,” translated in English by A.
Guillaume; first published by Oxford
University Press, London in 1955;
fifteenth reprint by Oxford University
Press, Karachi, Pakistan, 2001.

   al-Mubarakpuri, Saifur Sahman, ”The Sealed
Nectar (Ar-Raheeq al-Makhtum),” revised
edition; translated in English from Arabic
by Mahir Abu Dhahab, Darussalam
Publishers, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 2002. An
older edition of this book can be read online at:
http://www.witness-pioneer.org/vil/Books/SM_tsn/index.htm

   Ibn Sa’d, Abu Abd Allah Muhammad, “Kitab
al-Tabaqat,” vol ii, translated in English
by S. Moinul Haq, Kitab Bhavan; 1784,
Kalan Mahal, Daraya Ganj, New Delhi,
India, 1972.

   al-Tabari, Abu Ja’far Muhammad b. Jarir,
“Muhammad at Mecca,” vol. vi, translated
and annotated by W. Montgomery Watt and
M.V. McDonald, State University of New
York Press, Albany, 1988.

   al-Tabari, Abu Ja’far Muhammad b. Jarir,
“The Foundation of the Community, Muhammad
at al-Medina,” vol. vii, translated and
annotated by M.V. McDonald and W.
Montgomery Watt, State University of New
York Press, Albany, 1987.

   al-Tabari, Abu Ja’far Muhammad b. Jarir,
“The Victory of Islam,” vol. viii,
translated by Michael Fishbein, State
University of New York Press, Albany, 1997.

   al-Tabari, Abu Ja’far Muhammad b. Jarir,
“The Last Years of the Prophet,” vol. ix,
translated by Ismail K. Poonwala, , State
University of New York Press, Albany, 1990.

   Rodinson, Maxine, “Muhammad,” translated
from French by Anne Carter; first
published in 1971; The New York Press
publication, 2002,

   Muir, William, “Life of Mahomet” in four
volumes, Smith, Elater & Co. London, 1861:
http://www.answering-islam.org/Books/Muir/index.htm

   Haykal, Muhammad Hussain, “The Life of
Muhammad,” translated by Isma’il Razi A. al-Faruqi:  
http://www.witness-pioneer.org/vil/Books/MH_LM/default.htm

   Dashti, Ali, “23 Years: A Study in the
Prophetic Career of Mohammad,” translated
from Persian by F.R.C. Bagley, Mazda
Publishers, Costa Masa, California, 1994.

   Hamidullah, Muhammad, “The Battlefields of
The Prophet Muhammad,” 3rd. ed., Kitab
Bhavan; 1784, Kalan Mahal, Daraya Ganj,
New Delhi, India, 4th., reprint, 1992.

   Hughes, Patrick Thomas, “A Dictionary of
Islam;” first published in 1886; latest
reprint by Kazi Publications Inc,, Chicago, 1994.

   Ibn al-Kalbi, Hisham, “The Book of Idols
(Kitab Al-Asnam),” translated in English
by Nabih Amin Faris, Princeton University Press, 1952.
http://www.answering-islam.org/Books/Al-Kalbi/index.htm

   al-Misri, Ahmed ibn Naqib, “Raliance of
the Traveller (‘Umdat al-Salik),” revised
edition, translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller,
Amana Publications, Bettsville, Maryland, 1999.

   Hamilton, Charles, “Hedaya,” translated in
English in 1870 from the Persian version;
reprinted by Kitab Bhavan, 1784 Kalan
Mahal, Daraya Ganj, New Delhi, 1994.

   Doi, Abdur Rahman I.,” Shari’ah: The
Islamic Law;” first published in London,
in1984; Malaysia reprint by A.S. Noordin,
G.P.O. Box No. 10066, 50704, Kuala Lumpur,
1998.

   Fouda, Yosri and Nick Fielding,
“Masterminds of Terror,” Penguin Books,
Australia, 2003.

I N T R O D U C T I O N

The world is fast becoming accustomed to the term
‘Islamic Terror.’ It is a new genre of global
terrorism. Thanks to the Jihadists, Suicide Bombers,
Hamas, Hezbollah, Al-Qaeda, Lashkar-e-Taiba, Jaishe
Muhammad, Islamists, Mullahs, Maulanas, Pirs, Hijabi
Women-Islam today, dominates virtually every News
Media of every continent. Sooner or later, the term
‘Islamic Terror’ may find a place in the English
lexicon. With such a plethora of Islamic awareness,
the question is: Is Terror a la Islamic fashion is
something new or is it a product of the early
Jihadists’ zeal as taught and practiced by Muhammad?
Ask any Islamist/Islamic apologist this question and
the pithy answer will, most likely be something like:
Islam is peaceful, it never advocates violence, the
least of all, ‘Terrorism’ using Islam; Osama bin Ladin
and his Jihadists who have hijacked Islam are not true
Muslims, the suicide bombers do not represent the true
teachings of Islam…..and so on and so forth.

In this detailed article, by exposing the ‘true’
nature of what Islam is all about, I would like to
demolish the above paradigm of the Islamists. Since
Islam is firmly rooted in the past, in order to find
the root cause/s of the present ‘mayhem’ by the
Islamic fighters, we must analyse the past deeds,
actions, philosophical and theological attitudes of
the early Jihadists under the leadership of none but
Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah. As we proceed, we
must, first of all, realise that there is no such
thing as the ‘moderate Islam,’ ’current Islam’ or the
‘future Islam.’ It is the past-the actions of
millennium ago that propelled all Muslims of
yesterday, haunts and impels all the Muslims of to-day
and will continue doing so to-morrow. We must look
back, and not forward, to find out the truth about
Islam. Just as a tree sustains its life and continues
its growth because of its roots that are firmly
anchored underground-beyond the ocular visibility, so
is Islam. Terrorism is firmly rooted in the very
‘lofty’ doctrine of an Islamic world visioned by
Muhammad. This use of terror tactic is nothing new in
Islam; it was the lifeblood through which Muhammad
forced his concept of a unipolar world, devoted only
to one Semitic God, Allah. In this lengthy treatise, I
have chronicled all the events of terror, murder,
deceit, lies, intrigue and warfare that had been used
to nurture, advance and propagate the very essence of
Islam: accept Islam, pay protection money (Jizya) or
die. Many readers will be shocked and surprised at the
contents of this dissertation and will shake their
heads in utter disbelief. Most Muslims will be
agitated, angry, frustrated and will surely go on a
complete denial mode. To all these readers I would
like to say that I, too, went through the same phase.
As I took Islam very seriously during my formative
years, I started to understand fully its doctrine and
its life force, I could not believe that a man who
claimed to be the messenger of Allah could ever
indulge himself, as well as instruct his followers in
mindless murder, loot, plunder, torture and unbound
lasciviousness. As you read episodes after episodes of
the early terrorism of Islam, you will find eerie
similarities with the modern day global terrorism as
perpetrated by the Jihadists of today. You will, for
sure, discover that all the ingredients of terrorist
operations are present, as they were millennium ago;
it is, as if, to use the infidel language, the
‘reincarnation’ (or resurrection) of the past Islamic
terrorists. These ingredients are/were:

   Persecution and the killing of the unbelievers
   Plunder and ethnic cleansing
   Political assassination and revenge killing
   Gratuitous murder and unabated genocide
   Property grab and extreme lasciviousness
   Forced conversion/Jizya
   Sectarian persecution (destruction of mosques)

Let us now delve into early Islamic history and find
out how and why the early Jiahadists did what they
did.

The seed of terror a la Islamic fashion was planted
when Muhammad concluded an elaborate treaty with
seventy five (seventy-three men and two women) Ansars
(Medina residents) that is commonly called the second
pledge of Aqaba, Aqaba being a small hilly hamlet (or
a cave) in the outskirts of Mecca. This pact was done
in secrecy to protect the life of Muhammad when he
desired to migrate to Medina. During the negotiation
process, Muhammad asked for the solemn pledge of the
Ansars to protect his life the way the Ansars would
protect their women and children. When the Ansars
pledged their complete fealty to Muhammad, to the
extent of sacrificing their own lives for his
security, he promised blood to the Meccans and
paradise to the Ansars. As per Ibn Ishak, Muhammad
said to the Ansars: “Nay, blood is blood and blood not
to be paid for is blood not to be paid for. I am of
you and you are of me. I will war against them that
war against you and be at peace with those at peace
with you.” Tabari writes that during the oath of Aqaba
al-Abbas and Ubadah b. Nadlah said that pledging
allegiance to Muhammad was declaring war against the
world. Soon after the second pledge of Aqaba, Allah
approved this declaration of war against all infidels,
first in verses 22:40-42 and then in verse 2:198.

And true to his promise, Muhammad’s days of blood and
terror started soon after he left Mecca, and with a
handful of his followers, arrived at Medina. Except
for a few, those followers were desperately poor
illiterate hoodlums and troublemakers with no saleable
skill or means to support themselves through gainful
employment. Many of his companions lived in utter
unhygienic conditions, so much so that lice grew on
their heads and they developed terrible body odour.
Here is a Hadith from Sunaan Abu Dawud about the
unbearable body stench of Muhammad’s early converts:

Book 32, Number 4022:

Narrated AbuMusa al-Ash'ari:

   Abu Burdah said: My father said to me: My son,
if you had seen us while we were with the
Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) and the
rain had fallen on us, you would have thought
that our smell was the smell of the sheep.

Even Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah developed lice
on his head! Unbelievable, isn’t it? Read this Sahih
Hadith from Sahih Bukhari:

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 47:

Narrated Anas bin Malik:

Allah's Apostle used to visit Um Haram bint Milhan,
who would offer him meals. Um-Haram was the wife of
Ubada bin As-Samit. Allah's Apostle, once visited her
and she provided him with food and started looking for
lice in his head. Then Allah's Apostle slept, and
afterwards woke up smiling. Um Haram asked, "What
causes you to smile, O Allah's Apostle?" He said.
"Some of my followers who (in a dream) were presented
before me as fighters in Allah's Cause (on board a
ship) amidst this sea cause me to smile; they were as
kings on the thrones (or like kings on the thrones)."
(Ishaq, a sub-narrator is not sure as to which
expression the Prophet used.) Um-Haram said, "O
Allah's Apostle! Invoke Allah that he makes me one of
them. Allah's Apostle invoked Allah for her and slept
again and woke up smiling. Once again Um Haram asked,
"What makes you smile, O Allah's Apostle?" He replied,
"Some of my followers were presented to me as fighters
in Allah's Cause," repeating the same dream. Um-Haram
said, "O Allah's Apostle! Invoke Allah that He makes
me one of them." He said, "You are amongst the first
ones." It happened that she sailed on the sea during
the Caliphate of Mu'awlya bin Abi Sufyan, and after
she disembarked, she fell down from her riding animal
and died.

Two important aspects of Muhammad’s life are clear in
the above Hadith: firstly, he lived in unhygienic
condition, took infrequent bath, so much so that lice
found a fertile breeding spot on his head; secondly,
he used to be intimate with other person’s wife (or
wives?). How is it possible for a woman to touch a
man’s head and look for lice unless she is quite warm
and friendly to him? As per Islamic rule even looking
at any un-related woman is totally Haram, forget about
being touched by her. I would let the readers ponder
on the moral rectitude of the messenger of Allah
vis-a-vis married women from this Hadith and judge
what sort of respect he had on the very Islamic Laws
on morality that he himself had introduced.

Now, back to Muhammad’s companions. Yes, almost all of
Muhammad’s companions used to smell like sheep!
Muhammad took them to Medina in search of useful
employment for them; but no one wanted those doleful,
indigent, stinky Jihadist clods to be on his/her
payroll. Except for a few, even the regular job of
daily labourer was out for them. Some of them would
work as manual labourers and/or ‘coolies’ for a very
brief period and then become unemployed once again.
The extent of poverty among these early ‘birds’ of
Islam has been summed up in this Hadith of Sahi
Bukhari by Aisha, Muhammad’s favourite wife:

Volume 2, Book 24, Number 499:

Narrated Aisha:

   A lady along with her two daughters came to me
asking (for some alms), but she found nothing
with me except one date which I gave to her
and she divided it between her two daughters,
and did not eat anything herself, and then she
got up and went away. Then the Prophet came in
and I informed him about this story. He said,
"Whoever is put to trial by these daughters
and he treats them generously (with
benevolence) then these daughters will act as
a shield for him from Hell-Fire." (See Hadith
No. 24, Vol. 8).

The greatest surprise is that those indigent, dirt
poor Muslims later became very rich indeed. Here is a
Hadith from Sahih Bukhari about their transformation
from poverty to wealth:

Volume 2, Book 24, Number 497:

Narrated Abu Masud Al-Ansar:

   Whenever Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) ordered us
to give in charity, we used to go to the
market and work as porters and get a Mudd (a
special measure of grain) and then give it in
charity. (Those were the days of poverty) and
today some of us have one hundred thousand.

How did Muhammad do such a miracle? Was this
transformation from dire poverty to wealth achieved
through Islamic piety, spirituality, prayer, fasting
and the blessings of Allah? Or was this through
‘terrorism?’ To find the answer please read on.

When the life of the largely unemployed and
underemployed Muhajirs (refugees) became intolerable
in Medina, Muhammad had to do something for their
survival, and he had to do this rather quickly before
they became disillusioned with his promise of the
great treasures of Khusroo (the Persian Emperor) and
the Byzantine King. Rodinson writes that these early
Muslims had no regular sources of income and the only
method of survival for them was plundering when all
else had failed.

That, the major means of livelihood for the Muslims in
Medina was from the proceeds of plunder and the forced
Jizya tax on non-Muslims, can be confirmed from the
following Hadith in Sahih Bukhari:

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 388:

   Narrated Juwairiya bin Qudama At-Tamimi:

   We said to 'Umar bin Al-Khattab, O Chief of
the believers! Advise us." He said, "I advise
you to fulfill Allah's Convention (made with
the Dhimmis) as it is the convention of your
Prophet and the source of the livelihood of
your dependents (i.e. the taxes from the
Dhimmis.)."

[Please note that this Hadith has been removed by the
compiler from the summarised Translated (by Dr.
Muhammad Muhsin Khan) version of Sahih Al-Bukhari.
However this Hadith is available in the Internet
version of Translation of Sahih Al-Bukhari]

How did Muhammad earn his living in Medina? What job
did he do? In what occupation was he employed? What
business was he involved in? All these questions
remain unanswered. Except for the following Hadith
from Sahih Bukhari, all the Sunna, the Sahih Ahadith,
the Sirah (biography) never mention of any form of
acceptable and/or dignified profession/occupation that
Muhammad engaged in to support himself and his retinue
of ever increasing number of wives and concubines:
Here is that incredible Hadith:

EXACT QUOTE AND FOOTNOTE, VOL-IV (88) CHAPTER.

Narrated Ibn 'Umar that the Prophet (SA) said, "My
livelihood is under the shade of my spear,(1) and he
who disobeys my orders will be humiliated by paying
Jizya"

Footnote:- (1) "Under the shade of my spear" means
"from war booty".

That’s right, Muhammad, the messenger of Allah earned
his livelihood by plunder; the above Hadith is very
clear on this. Please note that this Hadith has been
carefully removed from the Internet version of Sahih
Bukhari. This hard to believe Hadith can only be found
in the original print version of the Translation of
Sahi Bukhari by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan. [Ref: The
Translation of the Meanings of Sahih Al-Bukhari,
Arabic-English, Vol.IV (page 104) by Dr. Muhammad
Muhsin Khan, Islamic University-Al-Medina
Al-Munauwara] Please consult the reference provided if
you have doubt. It is also interesting to note that in
the footnote the translator explains the meaning of
‘spear’ as ‘booty’; clever indeed.

If you thought that this is too much-- that a
messenger of Allah, the best of Allah’s creation could
never ever resort to sword (read terrorism) to earn a
living, then there is even more surprise awaiting for
you. Here is a Hadith from Sahih Muslim that writes
clearly, without ambiguity, that Muhammad and his
followers did just that-resort to terrorism (please
note that the comment inside the parenthesis is by the
translator):

Book 004, Number 1066:

   Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah
(may peace be upon him) said: I have been
helped by terror (in the heart of the enemy);
I have been given words which are concise but
comprehensive in meaning; and while I was
asleep I was brought the keys of the treasures
of the earth which were placed in my hand.

If those impeccable Ahadith are not convincing enough
to attest that Muhammad resorted to terrorism to
enrich his followers, here is another Sahih Hadith
from Sahih Bukhari:

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 220:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

   Allah's Apostle said, "I have been sent with
the shortest expressions bearing the widest
meanings, and I have been made victorious with
terror (cast in the hearts of the enemy), and
while I was sleeping, the keys of the
treasures of the world were brought to me and
put in my hand." Abu Huraira added: Allah's
Apostle has left the world and now you,
people, are bringing out those treasures (i.e.
the Prophet did not benefit by them).

To put his words into action, Muhammad even declared
that booty or plunder (read theft and armed robbery)
was lawful for him, as confirmed from this Sahih
Hadith from Sahih Bukhari:

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 351:

Narrated Jabir bin Abdullah:

Allah's Apostle said, "Booty has been made legal for
me."

The following Hadith tells us that Muhammad built
mosques using the proceeds of robbery, pillage and the
revenue from forced Jizya on non-Muslims. Read this
Hadith carefully and you will surely comprehend why
many people flocked to Muhammad and his Islam-yes, it
was pure greed and lust for money and wealth; Muhammad
broke all laws and rules of an established
contemporary civilised society just to satisfy this
greed of his followers. Here is the appropriate Hadith
from Sahih Bukhari:

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 390:

Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah:

Allah's Apostle once said to me, "If the revenue of
Bahrain came, I would give you this much and this
much." When Allah's Apostle had died, the revenue of
Bahrain came, and Abu Bakr announced, " Let whoever
was promised something by Allah's Apostle come to me."
So, I went to Abu Bakr and said, "Allah's Apostle said
to me, 'If the revenue of Bahrain came, I would give
you this much and this. much." On that Abu Bakr said
to me, "Scoop (money) with both your hands." I scooped
money with both my hands and Abu Bakr asked me to
count it. I counted it and it was five-hundred (gold
pieces). The total amount he gave me was one thousand
and five hundred (gold pieces.)

Narrated Anas: Money from Bahrain was brought to the
Prophet . He said, "Spread it in the Mosque." It was
the biggest amount that had ever been brought to
Allah's Apostle . In the meantime Al-'Abbas came to
him and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Give me, for I gave
the ransom of myself and Aqil." The Prophet said (to
him), "Take." He scooped money with both hands and
poured it in his garment and tried to lift it, but he
could not and appealed to the Prophet, "Will you order
someone to help me in lifting it?" The Prophet said,
"No." Then Al-'Abbas said, "Then will you yourself
help me carry it?" The Prophet said, "No." Then Al
'Abbas threw away some of the money, but even then he
was not able to lift it, and so he gain requested the
Prophet "Will you order someone to help me carry it?"
The Prophet said, "No." Then Al-'Abbas said, "Then
will you yourself yelp me carry it?" The Prophet said,
'No." So, Al-'Abbas threw away some more money and
lifted it on his shoulder and went away. The Prophet
kept on looking at him with astonishment at his
greediness till he went out of our sight. Allah's
Apostle did not get up from there till not a single
Dirham remained from that money.

Let us now make out how the early Muslim Jihadists
chose their victims of terror.

Looking around for prey, Muhammad found that there
were only two choices for him; rob the Medina
residents, or resort to armed highway robbery for the
booty of rich Meccan caravans plying the Mecca-Medina
route. He could not rob his Medina companions (Ansars)
as that would tantamount to his immediate destruction.
So, the only other choices left were the Jews, and his
nemesis, the Meccan Quraysh, who had largely rejected
his call for his brand of religion. As for the Jews,
he could not agitate them so soon, as he had already
entered into a covenant with them. He had no
legitimate reason to attack and appropriate their land
and goods. Please note that, in all the first few
raids, Muhammad did not want any Ansar to take part in
it. It was, because he did not want to upset the
Medinites by displaying his transformation to a true
brigand. He was also fearful that if his plundering
raids were not successful (i.e. unprofitable) then the
Ansars would lose their awe and respect for him. That
was why, he, at first, did not invite any Ansar to
take part in his first few terror raids. He needed to
demonstrate to his host country that terrorism was/is
profitable indeed!

With the notion of plundering the Jews out, the only
choice he was now left with was to attack and loot the
Quraysh caravan. Nonetheless, with such a feeble force
at his disposal at that time, he would never be able
to launch a decisive strike on the mighty Quraysh
army--he thought correctly. After all, in the first
place, this fear of military might of the Quraysh, was
the main reason for his exile from Mecca.

He contrived a brilliant idea. The plan was to lay
siege on the Quraysh when they were the most
vulnerable; that is, when they (the Quraysh) were
either alone, with very few comrades, or were far away
from their formidable sanctuary at Mecca. That meant,
raiding the Quraysh merchant caravans, terrorising
them and robbing them either on their way to trade
with Syria or on their return journey to Mecca. But
Muhammad was clever too; he was not hasty; he was
patient in seizing the appropriate opportunity to
attack the vulnerable Quraysh caravans. The plan was
very smart and lucrative, no doubt, because with this
assault, he could inspire his Jihadist followers to
take revenge on their ‘tormentors,’ while, at the same
time, they could also plunder a great booty that
Muhammad could never offer to these destitute and
famished Muhajirs.

With this design in mind, Muhammad was set to move.
He engaged a few spies to supply him with the
intelligence of the movement of Meccan caravans.
However, the Quraysh caravans were always well
protected with armed security guards, just to prevent
it from the plunder of highway bandits. Still then,
Muhammad wanted to try his luck, as those Meccan
caravans were such richly laden with exquisite
goods-no Jihadist could resist. Apologist biographer,
like Hussein Haykal of course tries to conceal the
truth by mentioning that the Muhajirs from Mecca were
homesick and were looking for an opportunity to take
revenge. While it is natural to feel a little
‘homesickness,’ the overwhelming reason for attacking
the Quraysh caravan was plundering and booty-plain and
simple. This premise bourns out from the fact that
later, when Muhammad conquered Mecca, none of those
‘homesick’ Muhajirs decided to return to their former
abode!

Let us now briefly review the first few of such many
surprise/terror raids on the Quraysh caravan. There is
a controversy as to which was the first raid on the
Quraysh caravan by Muhammad. Ibn Ishak writes that
Muhammad himself conducted the first raid, and it was
the raid on a caravan at Waddan. Ibn Ishak’s book is
scanty in giving a reasonable dating of these
operations. Waqidi writes that the first raid was the
raid conducted by Hamzah. Most other biographers are
quite agreeable with Waqidi’s version of the dating of
Muhammad’s raids. I have tried to use the same
approach.

Note: The dates are approximate and are guides only.

Terror One

The Raid on Quraysh Caravan at al-Is, or the
Expedition of Sif al-Bahr by Hamzah ibn
al-Muttalib--March, 623CE

The first raid/expedition against the Quraysh caravans
took place seven or nine months after the Hijrah. Led
by Hamzah ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib (Muhammad’s uncle),
with thirty or forty men of the emigrants; the purpose
of this raid, as stated earlier, was to plunder the
Quraysh caravan. This raiding party of Hamzah
assembled at the seacoast near al-Is, between Mecca
and Medina, where Abu Jahl ibn Hashim, the leader of
the caravan was camping with three hundred Meccan
riders. Hamza met Abu Jahl there with a view to attack
the caravan, but Majdi b. Amr al-Juhani, a Quraysh who
was friendly to both the parties intervened between
them; so, both parties separated without fighting.

This very first adventure of Muhammad in war and
plunder was not a success. Hamza returned to Medina
and Abu Jahl proceeded towards Mecca. This raid failed
as the Muslims were afraid to face such a formidable
convoy of the Quraysh; they returned to Medina
empty-handed.

Terror Two

Raid on Meccan Caravan at Buwat by Ubaydah b.
al-Harith---April, 623CE

This raid took place nine months after the Hijrah, a
few weeks after the first terror at al-Is.

About a month after Hamzah’s abortive bid for plunder,
Muhammad entrusted a party of sixty (or eighty)
Jihadists led by Ubaydah b. al-Harith (a cousin of
him) to conduct another terror operation at a Quraysh
caravan that was returning from Syria and protected by
two hundred armed men,. The leader of this caravan was
either Abu Sufyan ibn Harb or Ikrima b. Abu Jahl. The
Muslim party went as far as Thanyatul-Murra, a
watering place in Hejaz. No fighting took place, as
the Quraysh were quite far from the place where
Muslims were in the offing to attack the caravan.
Nevertheless, Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas, an ardent Jihadist,
shot an arrow at the Quraysh. This was the ‘first
arrow of Islam.’ The arrows thrown at them by the
Medina party surprised the Quraysh. It was completely
an unprovoked attack on the Quraysh that sent the
strong message to them about what they could expect
next. However, no fighting took place and the Muslims
returned empty-handed. Some say that Ubaydah was the
first Jihadist to carry the banner of Islam; others
say Hamzah (see Terror 1) was the first to carry the
first banner.

Some say that Muhammad commanded Ubaydah to conduct
this raid while he (Muhammad) was returning from the
raid of al-Abwa (see Terror 4).

Terror Three

Raid on a Meccan Caravan at Kharar by Sa’d ibn
Waqqas-April, 623CE

The very brave act of Sa’d ibn Waqqas, to shoot arrows
at the Quraysh (see Terror 2), must have greatly
impressed Muhammad. During this time, Sa’d had been
between twenty to twenty-five years old. However, his
young age did not deter him from being appointed by
Muhammad as the leader of a plundering team to lay a
siege, with only twenty other Jihadissts (some say
only eight), on the Meccan caravan. All of them were
from the Muahjirs (immigrants). So, one month later,
the third terrorist operation took place under the
leadership of a youthful Sa’d and his gang. Sa’d, with
his minions of committed Jihadists set up an ambush in
the valley of Kharrar on the road to Mecca and waited
to raid a returning Meccan caravan from Syria.

They planned a surprise attack. Nonetheless, to their
utter frustration, they learnt that the ‘booty’ (the
Meccan caravan) had already eluded them, just one day
before they arrived at the place of plunder. The
Muslims returned to Medina crestfallen.

Chapter Two

‘If terrorism is to throw terror into the heart of
your enemy and the enemy of Allah then we thank Him,
the most merciful, the most compassionate, for
enabling us to be terrorists’-Ramzi BinalShibh

Terror Four

Raid on a Meccan Caravan and on B. Damrah at al-Abwa/
Waddan by Muhammad-August, 623CE

Muhammad became quite frustrated with the dismal
failures of the previous three attempts to plunder the
vulnerable Quraysh merchant caravans. Time was of
essence, and he felt the pressure of producing results
(read profit) to please his believers. With this
urgency in mind, he personally, took charge of this
raiding foray and led his followers, to his very
personal first step in the act of bloodshed and
pillage. This was the raid at al-Abwa, also known as
the Ghazwah of Waddan. As said before, he himself
conducted this raid, directed at Abwa, the spot where
his mother lay buried. To his dismay, when he arrived
at the site, the Quraysh caravan had already passed.
Disappointed, he then raided the nearest tribe of B.
Damra (a branch of B. Bakr) and forced them to
conclude a treaty of no aggression (by B. Damra). This
treaty was the first written accord of Muhammad with
any foreign tribe. The agreement was of benefit to
Muhammad, as it prevented the B. Damra to mobilize
forces against him, nor could they assist Muhammad’s
enemy who were principally the Quraysh. In return,
Muhammad pledged not to wage any war against this
tribe. Then Muhammad went as far as Waddan in pursuit
of the Quraysh caravan, but it eluded him. Although he
failed in his pursuit of the Quraysh booty, he
cleverly concluded this strategically important treaty
of friendship with this nomadic (B. Damra) tribe. The
treaty provided him with an ally in his raid on
Quraysh caravans. After concluding the treaty he
returned to Medina after fifteen days.

[Please note: Ghazwa means either a military force
when an Apostle (Rasul) leads it or an Imam. It also
means a sudden attack on a caravan or another tribe
for the purpose of seizing property and women.

Sariyah or brigade means a small force commanded by
one of the Imam’s lieutenants.

There is an allusion in Sahih Bukhari of this very
first, personal act of terrorism by Muhammad:

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 256:

Narrated As-Sab bin Jaththama:

   The Prophet passed by me at a place called
Al-Abwa or Waddan, and was asked whether it
was permissible to attack the pagan warriors
at night with the probability of exposing
their women and children to danger. The
Prophet replied, "They (i.e. women and
children) are from them (i.e. pagans)." I also
heard the Prophet saying, "The institution of
Hima is invalid except for Allah and His
Apostle."

This Hadith clearly says that in his terror operations
Muhammad did not even want to spare the women and
children of the infidels.

Terror Five

Raid on a Rich Meccan Caravan at Bawat by
Muhammad-October, 623CE

A month after his raid at al-Abwa, Muhammad personally
led two hundred men including some citizens of Medina
to Bawat, a place on the caravan route of the Quraysh
merchants, where a herd of fifteen hundred (1,500) to
two thousand-five hundred (2,500) camels, accompanied
by one hundred (100) riders, under the leadership of
Umayyah ibn Khalaf, a Quraysh was proceeding. The
purpose of this raid obviously, was the plunder of
this exceedingly rich Quraysh caravan.

No battle took place and the raid resulted in no
booty. Muhammad went up to Dhat al-Saq, in the desert
of al-Khabar. He prayed there and a mosque was built
at the spot.

This was the first raid where a few al-Usharayh Ansars
took part. They were attracted to the raid with the
prospect of striking it rich through pillage.

Terror Six

Raid on a Meccan Caravan at al-Ushayrah, in the
district of Yanbu by Muhammad-November, 623CE

This was Muhammad’s third personal raid. Between one
hundred-fifty and two hundred (note the increasing
number of Jihadists joining in the robbery) followers
joined this terror operation. They had thirty camels
that they rode upon by turns. When they arrived at
al-Usharayh in the direction of Yanbo, they expected
to waylay upon a rich Meccan caravan towards Syria led
by Abu Sufyan. Muhammad already had the intelligence
report of this caravan’s departure from Mecca. He
waited for a month (+) for this caravan to pass.
Unfortunately, it was too late; for, when Muhammad
reached the intended spot of plunder, the Meccan
caravan had already passed. The readers should keep in
mind of this raid, as this was the same caravan that
gave rise to the famous action at Badr (Badr II)
during its return journey. In this operation, Muhammad
entered into an alliance with Bani Mudlij, a tribe
inhabiting the vicinity of al-Usharayh. He also
concluded another treaty with Bani Damra. All those
treaties established good political connections for
him.

Terror Seven

Raid on Muhammad’s Milch Camels at Badr (Badr I) by
Kurz ibn Jabir al-Fihri-December, 623CE

After those six unprovoked and hostile attacks on the
Quraysh caravans, the Quraysh had had enough. It was
now time for them to retaliate and send a strong
message to Muhammad that his highway robbery cannot go
unpunished forever. With this end in view, Kurz ibn
Jabir al-Fihri, allay of the Quarysh raided the
vicinity of Medina where Muhammad’s milch camels were
pasturing. This was conducted ten days after Muhammad
returned to Medina from his unsuccessful plundering
attempt at the Quraysh caravan at al-Usharayh. Having
heard of this attack, Muhammad swiftly went out
looking for Kurz until he reached the Safwa valley,
close to Badr. This was the first raid at Badr or Badr
I. Kurz escaped the capture; Muhammad returned to
Medina and stayed there for the next three months. It
is said that later, Muhammad caught Kurz and he (Kurz)
converted to Islam.

Terror Eight

Raid on Meccan Caravan at Nakhla by Abd Allah ibn
Jahsh, the First Successful Plunder-December, 623CE

After his return from the first Badr encounter,
Muhammad sent Abd Allah b. Jahsh in Rajab with eight
emigrants and without any Ansar for another terror
operation. Abd Allah b. Jahsh was a maternal cousin of
Muhammad. The participants in this plunder were: 1.
Abu Haudhayfa 2. Abd Allah b Jahsh 3. Ukkash b. Mihsan
4. Utba b. Ghazwan 5. Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas 6. Amir
b.Rabia 7. Waqid b. Abd Allah and 8. Khalid b.
al-Bukayr. Some historians say that there were between
seven to twelve partakers in this raiding/plundering
party of the Muslims. It will be useful to remember
the names of these very first Islam’s terrorists, as
we shall witness, later, that their names crop up in
many other terror operations.

Muhammad gave Abd Allah b. Jahsh a letter, but not to
be read until he had travelled for two days and then
to do what he was instructed to do in the letter
without putting pressure on his companions. Abd Allah
proceeded for two days, then he opened the letter; it
told him to proceed until he reached at Nakhla,
between Mecca and Taif; lie in wait for the Quraysh
and observe what they were doing. Abd Allah b. Jahsh
told his companions that whoever chose martyrdom (read
terrorism) was free to join him and whoever did not
could go back. All the companions agreed to follow him
(a few biographers write that two Muslims decided not
to be martyrs and chose to return to Medina). Sa’d b.
Abi Waqqas and Utbah b. Ghazwan lost a camel that they
were taking turns to ride. The camel strayed and went
to Buhran. So, they went out looking for the runaway
camel to Buhran and fell behind the raiding party.

As instructed by the Prophet, Abd Allah and the rest
of the party then proceeded, and soon they arrived at
Nakhla. Nakhla was a valley to the east of Mecca,
about halfway to Taif. It was the usual route to Syria
for the Meccan caravans. Muhammad had the secret
information that a rich Meccan caravan, lightly
guarded, laden with dry raisin, wine leather and other
goods was soon to pass by the route.

Four Quraysh men guarded this donkey caravan. They
were:

Amr b. al-Hadrami. He was the leader of the caravan.

Uthman b. Abd Allah b. al-Mughirah.

Nawfal b. Abd Allah b. al-Mughirah, Uthman’s brother.

Al-Hakam b. Kaysan, the freed slave (Mawla)of Hisham
b. al-Mughirah.

Soon, the Meccan caravan arrived at Nakhla guarded by
the four Quraysh men. When they saw the Muslims, they
were afraid of them. One of Abd Allah b. Jahsh’s men,
Ukkash b Mihsan, was shaven in head to hide the real
purpose of their journey and to give the Quraysh the
impression of lesser Hajj (Umra); for, it was the
month (Rajab) when hostilities were forbidden. When
the Quraysh saw the shaven head of Ukkash, they
thought that the Muslims were on their way for
pilgrimage and they felt relieved and safe and started
to prepare food for themselves. That was how the first
band of Muslim Jihadists deceived their prey.

Due to the prevalence of a sacred month, either at the
beginning of Rajab or at the end of it (the opinion
among the historians vary), Rajab being one of the
four sacred months when there was a total ban on
warfare and bloodshed in the Arabian Peninsula, Abd
Allah b. Jahsh was, at first, hesitant to attack the
caravan. Nevertheless, after much deliberation, the
Muslims did not want this rich caravan to escape their
hand. So, they decided to kill as many Quraysh as they
could and take a large booty. They attacked the
Quraysh while they (the Quraysh) were busy preparing
their food. In the short battle that ensued, Waqid b.
Abd Allah killed Amr b. Hadrami, the leader of the
Quraysh caravan. Nawfal b.Abd Allah escaped. The
Muslims took Uthman b. Abd Allah and al-Hakam b.
Kaysan as prisoners.
.

Abd Allah b. Jahsh returned to Medina with the booty
and with the two captured Quraysh men. He had already
decided to give one-fifth of the booty to Muhammad,
and divide the rest among them. The prevailing share
of the leader of a plundering party at that time was
one quarter of the booty. It is not clear why Abd
Allah b. Jahsh decided on one-fifth booty, as Allah
did not yet decide the provision of ‘Khums’ (gang
leader’s commission on booty of plunder/theft) for
Muhammad in verse 8:41. This verse was released after
the Badr war, which took place after the plunder at
Nakhla.

008.041

And know that out of all the booty that ye may acquire
(in war), a fifth share is assigned to Allah,- and to
the Messenger, and to near relatives, orphans, the
needy, and the wayfarer,- if ye do believe in Allah
and in the revelation We sent down to Our servant on
the Day of Testing,- the Day of the meeting of the two
forces. For Allah hath power over all things.

Since this bloodshed took place during a sacred month,
Muhammad was quite unwilling to start an un-ending
cycle of revenge killings. The Quraysh also spread
everywhere the news of the raid and the killing by
Muhammad in the sacred month. Therefore, he rebuked
them (the Muslims) for fighting in the sacred month
and refused to take any share from the booty. Then
verse 2:217 regarding fighting in the sacred month was
revealed.

002.217

They ask thee concerning fighting in the Prohibited
Month. Say: "Fighting therein is a grave (offence);
but graver is it in the sight of Allah to prevent
access to the path of Allah, to deny Him, to prevent
access to the Sacred Mosque, and drive out its
members." Tumult and oppression are worse than
slaughter. Nor will they cease fighting you until they
turn you back from your faith if they can. And if any
of you Turn back from their faith and die in unbelief,
their works will bear no fruit in this life and in the
Hereafter; they will be companions of the Fire and
will abide therein.

This revelation permitted Muhammad to conduct war
during the sacred months.

Then Abd Allah b. Jahsh divided the booty, one-fifth
going to Muhammad. He also decided to make more money
by asking ransom for the two captives. However,
Muhammad refused to accept the ransoms from the
Quraysh until the two of his men, Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas
and Utbah b. Ghazwan returned from searching the
straying camel. He was afraid that the Quraysh might
kill them if they found them. When Sa’d and Utbah
returned unharmed, Muhammad released the two Quraysh
prisoners on payment of their ransom of one thousand
six hundred (1,600) Dirhams (one Dirham = 1/10 Dinar;
one Dinar 4.235 gm of gold) per head. It is reported
that, soon after his release, Hakam b. Kaysan became a
Muslim, probably after witnessing the profitability in
terrorism a la Islamic style. Later, he was killed at
the battle of Bir Mauna. The other prisoner, Uthman b.
Abd Allah returned to Mecca and died as an unbeliever.

The Islamic name of this first successful plunder is
‘Nakhla Raid.’ It was also the first raid on which the
Muslims seized the first captive, and the first life
they took. Rightfully, Abd Allah was called the Amir
al-Mominun, that is, the commander of the faithful.

After the success of Nakhla raid, Muhammad felt
militarily strong and promulgated the rule on the
justification of transaction and distribution of
spoils of plunder. He actually legalized and
legitimized plunder.

This successful raid on the Quraysh caravans fully
alarmed the Meccans, because their prosperity
completely depended upon the regular and uninterrupted
trade to Syria. The trading with Abyssinia and Yemen
was of lesser importance. Even the trading caravan
towards Abyssinia and Yemen did not look safe from the
marauding army of Muhammad. The Nakhla attack also
greatly unnerved the Meccans. They now believed that
Muhammad had very little respect for life and
absolutely no concern for the sanctity of the sacred
months. So, the Meccans resolved to avenge the
bloodshed. However, the Quraysh restrained their
hostility. Muhammad still had a few of his followers
residing at Mecca, including his own daughter, Zaynab.
The Quraysh did not take any revenge on the remaining
followers of Muhammad (including Muhammad’s daughter)
at Mecca neither did they make any attempt to harass
his beloved daughter, Zaynab.

Muhammad, on the other hand, after the success at
Nakhla, contemplated a more severe and mortal attack
on the Quraysh. Allah now gave him the permission to
fight the unbelievers in verses 22:39-42, 2:190-194.
As well, the raid at Nakhla was justified by the
‘expulsion’ of the believers from Mecca. However, the
true reason was “until the religion became God’s
alone”. That meant, until all the Meccans (or the
world) accepted Islam.

022.039

To those against whom war is made, permission is given
(to fight), because they are wronged;- and verily,
Allah is most powerful for their aid;-

022.040

(They are) those who have been expelled from their
homes in defiance of right,- (for no cause) except
that they say, "our Lord is Allah". Did not Allah
check one set of people by means of another, there
would surely have been pulled down monasteries,
churches, synagogues, and mosques, in which the name
of Allah is commemorated in abundant measure. Allah
will certainly aid those who aid his (cause);- for
verily Allah is full of Strength, Exalted in Might,
(able to enforce His Will).

022.041

(They are) those who, if We establish them in the
land, establish regular prayer and give regular
charity, enjoin the right and forbid wrong: with Allah
rests the end (and decision) of (all) affairs.

022.042

If they treat thy (mission) as false, so did the
peoples before them (with their Prophets),- the People
of Noah, and 'Ad and Thamud;

002.190

Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but
do not transgress limits; for Allah loveth not
transgressors.

002.191

And slay them wherever ye catch them, and turn them
out from where they have Turned you out; for tumult
and oppression are worse than slaughter; but fight
them not at the Sacred Mosque, unless they (first)
fight you there; but if they fight you, slay them.
Such is the reward of those who suppress faith.

002.192

But if they cease, Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most
Merciful.

002.193

And fight them on until there is no more Tumult or
oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in
Allah; but if they cease, Let there be no hostility
except to those who practise oppression.

002.194

The prohibited month for the prohibited month,- and so
for all things prohibited,- there is the law of
equality. If then any one transgresses the prohibition
against you, Transgress ye likewise against him. But
fear Allah, and know that Allah is with those who
restrain themselves.

Those who were reluctant to join in the war of plunder
were reproved. Allah’s revelation on this came down in
verses 47:20-21. These verses granted paradise to
those who fight (or terrorize and plunder) for Islam
i.e., Jihad and are killed.

047.020

Those who believe say, "Why is not a sura sent down
(for us)?" But when a sura of basic or categorical
meaning is revealed, and fighting is mentioned
therein, thou wilt see those in whose hearts is a
disease looking at thee with a look of one in swoon at
the approach of death. But more fitting for them-

047.021

Were it to obey and say what is just, and when a
matter is resolved on, it were best for them if they
were true to Allah.

Allah then asked these terrorists to “strike off the
heads of the unbelievers; to make a great slaughter
and bind them fast in bonds” in verse 47:3-4

047.003

This because those who reject Allah follow vanities,
while those who believe follow the Truth from their
Lord: Thus does Allah set forth for men their lessons
by similitudes.

047.004

Therefore, when ye meet the Unbelievers (in fight),
smite at their necks; At length, when ye have
thoroughly subdued them, bind a bond firmly (on them):
thereafter (is the time for) either generosity or
ransom: Until the war lays down its burdens. Thus (are
ye commanded): but if it had been Allah's Will, He
could certainly have exacted retribution from them
(Himself); but (He lets you fight) in order to test
you, some with others. But those who are slain in the
Way of Allah,- He will never let their deeds be lost.

Furthermore, the true believers were expected not only
to fight but also to contribute materially towards the
cost of war (4:66-67, 9:88, 9:111), to kill and be
killed. Those who did this were promised a higher rank
in paradise (4:74, 4:95). The believers were asked to
prepare whatever force in their ability, troops,
horses, etc. to strike terror into the hearts of the
unbelievers (remember Dr. Mahathir’s famous
Jewish-bashing speech at OIC conference in late 2003?)
(9:73, 123, 8:60).

004.066

If We had ordered them to sacrifice their lives or to
leave their homes, very few of them would have done
it: But if they had done what they were (actually)
told, it would have been best for them, and would have
gone farthest to strengthen their (faith);

004.067

And We should then have given them from our presence a
great reward;

009.088

But the Messenger, and those who believe with him,
strive and fight with their wealth and their persons:
for them are (all) good things: and it is they who
will prosper.

009.111

Allah hath purchased of the believers their persons
and their goods; for theirs (in return) is the garden
(of Paradise): they fight in His cause, and slay and
are slain: a promise binding on Him in truth, through
the Law, the Gospel, and the Qur'an: and who is more
faithful to his covenant than Allah? then rejoice in
the bargain which ye have concluded: that is the
achievement supreme.

004.074

Let those fight in the cause of Allah Who sell the
life of this world for the hereafter. To him who
fighteth in the cause of Allah,- whether he is slain
or gets victory - Soon shall We give him a reward of
great (value).

004.095

Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) and
receive no hurt, and those who strive and fight in the
cause of Allah with their goods and their persons.
Allah hath granted a grade higher to those who strive
and fight with their goods and persons than to those
who sit (at home). Unto all (in Faith) Hath Allah
promised good: But those who strive and fight Hath He
distinguished above those who sit (at home) by a
special reward,-

009.073

O Prophet! strive hard against the unbelievers and the
Hypocrites, and be firm against them. Their abode is
Hell,- an evil refuge indeed.

009.123

O ye who believe! fight the unbelievers who gird you
about, and let them find firmness in you: and know
that Allah is with those who fear Him.

008.060

Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of
your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror
into (the hearts of) the enemies, of Allah and your
enemies, and others besides, whom ye may not know, but
whom Allah doth know. Whatever ye shall spend in the
cause of Allah, shall be repaid unto you, and ye shall
not be treated unjustly.

These messages were promulgated within two or three
years after Muhammad’s arrival at Medina. This
promulgation was not only for the refugees (Muhajirs)
but also to all the men of Medina.

(Note: From now on, to conserve space, only the verse
numbers will be quoted omitting the full texts of the
verses).
 
Chapter Three

‘Cruelty is the first of God’s attributes-Andre Gide
(1869-1951)

Terror Nine

The Battle of Badr II Led by Muhammad-March, 624CE

It was mentioned previously (Terror 6, CH. 2) that
Muhammad, and his accomplices narrowly missed the
booty of a caravan of the Quraysh led by Abu Sufyan.
As written before, when Muhammad arrived at al-Ushayra
to attack this caravan, he learned to his dismay that
this richly laden caravan had already passed two days
earlier than his advent at the intended site of
pillage. Naturally, his booty-hungry followers were
very much dejected at this unexpected loss. Muhammad,
however, was astute enough to be aware that the same
caravan could be successfully attacked during its
return journey from al-Sham (Syria). Only three months
of patience and waiting was essential to seize the
returning caravan. With this end in view, Muhammad
started to recruit Jihadists for his next plundering
mission.

In his mosque, he called the Muslims and tempted them
to raid the Quraysh caravan for rich booty. He told
his congregation, “This is the Quraysh caravan
containing their property. Go out to attack it,
perhaps God will give it as a prey. ” Hitherto, he
never mentioned to the local people of Medina about
engaging in a war for booty. They always betook him to
be altruistic, very pious, noble, peace-loving and
non-belligerent Prophet of mercy and compassion. Many
Muslims were greatly shocked at what Muhammad had said
at the gathering in the mosque, and they could not
believe when he invited them to join him in the loot
that Muhammad would go to war. They were truly
surprised. However, the greed for a rich booty gripped
their minds and there was no shortage of volunteers to
take a chance to improve their lot with the proceeds
of plunder.

On this greed for ill-gotten wealth, Rodinson writes
(Rodinson, p.162):

“As the business began to show a profit they were
joined by volunteers from the people of Medina, in
spite of the fact that their agreement with Muhammad
carried with it no obligation to take part in his
campaigns.”

The response to Muhammad’s call was mixed. Many people
joined his team willingly, but many were also forced
or coerced into the Muslim brigand. Muhammad set up
the condition that only the Muslims were eligible to
join in this terror campaign. Many non-believers tried
their luck, but Muhammad was adamant that no Islam
meant no share in the spoils. In this way, his
campaign was a great success among the local Medina
Muslims (Ansars). Up until now, no Ansar had joined
Muhammad in his previous missions of highway robbery.
The success of Abdullah ibn Jahsh at Nakhla, however,
had raised the desire for booty in the minds of many
Ansars. This irresistible lure and greed for the
plunder of fine Quraysh merchandise was such a great
draw in that many Medinites responded to his call of
raiding the Quraysh caravan with raging alacrity. Such
was the enthusiasm for this Jihad of plunder that
Muhammad quickly recruited a strong force of three
hundred and thirteen (313) men consisting of
seventy-seven (77) Muhajirs (refugee migrants) and two
hundred and thirty-six (236) Ansars. Thus, the Ansars
formed the bulk of his new raiding party of Jihadists.

A few weeks before his departure for Badr, and when
the Quraysh caravan came in the vicinity of Medina,
Muhammad sent two spies, Talhah ibn Ubaydullah and
Said ibn Zayd to discover the caravan’s whereabouts.
These two men arrived at the campsite of Kashd
al-Juhany and hid there until the caravan passed.
Forty men guarded the Meccan caravan. The two Muslim
spies estimated that the goods the caravan carried
were around fifty thousand (50,000) Dinars. (Remember:
one Dinar = 4.235 grams of gold. At the current price
of gold, this booty was worth about US$ 2,725,000, not
including the prices of captives, camels and other
items). It was absolutely fabulous; these two spies
had no hesitation in surmising. They immediately
hastened to pass this good news to Muhammad. Muhammad,
however, had already left for Badr, just a day before
these two spies returned to Medina. He was too
impatient for the booty; he could not wait for the
spies’ return. Thus, Talhah ibn Ubaydullah and Said
ibn Zayd had to stay back in Medina, missing the
Muslim army. Nevertheless, Muhammad did not disappoint
these two faithful spies for their services. Each of
them received full share of the plunder when Muhammad
returned to Medina. Remaining at Medina was also
Muhammad’s son-in-law, Uthman b. Affan. Uthman’s wife,
Ruqayyah (Muhammad’s daughter) fell ill during this
time and he had to stay back to look after her.
Muhammad gave his son-in-law his full share of the
booty. Such was the generosity of the Prophet of
mercy! Sahih Bukhari records Muhammad’s promise of
booty to his son-in-law in this way:

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 359:

Narrated Ibn 'Umar:

   'Uthman did not join the Badr battle because
he was married to one of the daughters of
Allah's Apostle and she was ill. So, the
Prophet said to him. "You will get a reward
and a share (from the war booty) similar to
the reward and the share of one who has taken
part in the Badr battle."

In the meantime, through spies and reliable sources,
the news of Muhammad’s preparation to raid the Quraysh
caravan reached Abu Sufyan. He was dreadfully alarmed.
He was aware of the treaties that Muhammad had entered
into with many tribes on the caravan route; there was
a great possibility of a surprise attack by them as
well. He, forthwith, sent Damdam b. Amr al-Ghifari to
Mecca for help. When Damdam arrived at Mecca, he cut
the nose of his camel, turned its saddle and announced
Muhammad’s plan to attack the caravan of Abu Sufyan.
Responding to his cry, Abu Jahl called upon all the
Meccans to join in the rescue operation. At that time,
Banu Kinanah and Banu Bakr tribes were in enmity with
the Quraysh. So, they did not pay heed to Abu Jahl’s
call. Taking full advantage of the Quraysh’s bad time,
they, at first, decided to attack the Quraysh from
behind, but in the end, the chief of the Kinanah
tribe, Suraqa b. Malik decided not to betray the
Quraysh. The Muslim biographer, like Ibn Ishaq calls
this Suraqa an Iblis. When the Quraysh were assured of
non-aggression from these two tribes, Abu Jahl and
Amir ibn al-Hadrami (Amr ibn Hadrami’s brother;
remember? Amr was killed by the Muslims at Nakhla)
convinced the Meccans in favour of war with Muhammad.
So, every able-bodied person from the Quraysh joined
in, except for Abu Lahab. He sent, in his place, al-As
b. Hisham (the maternal uncle of Umar b. Khattab) who
owed him four thousand Dirhams that he could not pay
back. Abu Lahab hired him to proxy-fight for him to
clear his debt.

While the Quraysh were readying for the war, Muhammad
was completely unaware of the preparation of the
Meccans to face him militarily. He was very confident
that he will prevail and will accumulate the Quraysh
booty.

So, with much hope and great confidence, on Sunday,
the 10th March, 624 CE (12th Ramadan, AH2), Muhammad,
along with the three hundred and thirteen (313) (the
number ranges from 307 to 318) Jihadists, marched out
from Medina towards Badr. Ahead of the Muslims were
two black flags, one carried by Ali ibn Talib and the
other carried by an Ansar man. Seventy camels marched
with them and the three hundred plus Muslim soldiers
took turns to ride on them. They had only two horses
with them. Muhammad kept Abu Lubaba in charge of upper
Medina. Instead of the direct route to Mecca, to hide
detection, he took an unusual route that passed by
Irqul Zabya, Saffra and Dhafiran.

On Monday, the 11th of March, Muhammad arrived near
Saffra. He sent two spies, Basbas b. Amr al-Juhani and
Adi b. Abu Zaghba to Badr for intelligence regarding
any preparation being made for the reception of Abu
Sufiyan at Badr and to ascertain the whereabouts of
the Quraysh caravan. It was there that Muhammad
expected to encounter the caravan and to make a sudden
attack. While there, the spies overheard the
conversation of two women near a well that the Quraysh
caravan was expected within a day or two. They hurried
to Muhammad to forward this important information.

In the early morning of Tuesday, 12th of March, Abu
Sufyan came in advance of the caravan and halted at
the wadi (watering well) and got wind of the presence
of Muhammad’s party by examining the distinct Medina
camel droppings of Basbas and Adi. Abu Sufiyan was
extremely worried at the sinister plot of Muhammad and
he hurriedly went back to his main caravan; diverted
it towards the coastal route, thus saving it from the
pillage by Muhammad’s soldiers. In reality, Muhammad
missed the caravan by a few hours only, Abu Sufyan
himself went along with the caravan to ensure its safe
arrival at Mecca. He sent a second courier, Qays b.
Imea al-Qays to inform the advancing Meccan army of
his decision to detour the Quraysh caravan and to
forward the message that the danger was over. During
this time, Muhammad was at Rooha and drank from a well
there.

On Wednesday, the 13th of March, this second courier
of Abu Sufyan met the Meccan army led by Abu Jahl at
Johfa. Abu Jahl, was proceeding to provide the added
security for the threatened caravan. The courier told
Abu Jahl that Abu Sufyan felt no necessity of
bloodshed since the caravan was safe. He asked Abu
Jahl and his men to return to Mecca. But Abu Jahl
insisted on advancing forward to Badr, wishing to do
some trading, as well as to enjoy some wining and
dining there. The accompanying singing girls however,
were sent back to Mecca. Two tribes of the Quraysh, B.
Zohra (Muhammad’s mother’s tribe) and B. Adi (Umar’s
tribe) also decided to return to Mecca.

The remaining Meccan army marched forward and reached
Badr in the evening of Thursday, 14th of March. They
encamped on the far side of the Badr well and behind
the mountain.

Meanwhile, Muhammad was proceeding forward. And in the
early morning of Thursday, the 14th of March, when he
arrived at Dhafiran, not very far from Badr, to his
chagrin, he received the news of the Quraysh army
advancing to protect their richly laden caravan. He
was quite frustrated at the prospect of a bloody war
instead of an easy victory for booty. The bad news for
the Jihadists was that the prized caravan had already
passed.

The news of the advancing Meccan army was completely
unexpected to the Muslims. Muhammad himself was not
sure if he should proceed further or not now that the
booty had eluded them. Facing the dilemma of whether
an attack against the Quraysh would constitute a
breach of his covenant of protection with the Ansars
(a pledge that stipulated that the Ansars protect
Muhammad if he was attacked at Medina and its
vicinity), Muhammad, in a meeting of his war council,
sought the advice of all the Muslims, especially that
of the Ansars. He was afraid that the Ansars might not
protect him outside Medina. Abu Bakr and Umar called
for an immediate rally. The people of Medina also
pledged their support for the march. The leader of the
Ansars (from Bani al-Aws), Sa’d b. Muadh promised that
the Ansars would sink if Muhammad led them to the sea
and plunged into it. Then all the Ansars pledged to
fight with Muhammad. Deeply pleased, Muhammad asked
his men to proceed. He promised a slaughter for the
enemy. To please the booty-hungry Jihadists, he
disclosed that Allah had promised them either the army
or the caravan as per verse 8:7

Trudging further, Muhammad, with his henchmen, arrived
at Badr in the early morning of Thursday, ahead of the
Meccan army, and camped there. A shelter from palm
branches was built for him. He got hold of the water
wells first. As per the advice of the war veteran,
al-Hubab, Muhammad filled all the water wells except
the one nearest to him. The Muslims then made a
cistern and filled it with water. This clever strategy
put the Muslims at a decisive advantage of complete
control of the water supply. Thus, the enemy was now
at the mercy of Muhammad’s soldiers if they needed
water. And Muhammad’s army was ready to kill any
Meccan who ventured to approach the cistern to drink
from there.

Soon after his very early morning arrival at Badr,
Muhammad sought to gather accurate intelligence about
the Meccan army. First he, along with Abu Bakr went
out spying. They met a man on the road and inquired of
him about the situation. The man would not tell the
truth until Muhammad agreed to disclose his identity.
So they (Muhammad and Abu Bakr) tried to gather more
information about the Quraysh army through mendacity.
The extracted information was not much use to
Muhammad. In the evening, he despatched Ali and a few
others to further survey the area surrounding a
spring. There, they located two Quraysh slave water
carriers. Ali and his companions abducted these two
slaves and brought them to Muhammad. The slaves told
the Muslims that they were the water carriers of the
Quraysh army. This was bad news for the Muslims; for,
they hoped that the slaves were from Abu Sufyan’s
camp. After applying apposite torture to these two
slaves, the Muslims extracted the information about
the position and the probable strength of the Quraysh
army. This information, along with the fact that the
Quraysh had slaughtered nine camels on the first day
and ten camels on the second day, gave Muhammad some
idea about the probable size of the Quraysh army. He
speculated that the Quraysh army must be between nine
hundred (900) to one thousand (1 000) men strong. This
guess was quite accurate; for there were nine hundred
and fifty (950) Quraysh men. They were mounted on
seven hundred (700) camels and one hundred (100)
horses. When Muhammad learned about the nobles of the
Quraysh present, he said, “Here Mecca has flung its
dearest flesh and blood to you.”

At nightfall, Muhammad, along with Abu Bakr returned
to his lair and started praying to Allah for His
succor. Sa’d b. Muadh kept a vigil at the entrance.
The Muslims too, were weary due to the lengthy and
arduous march they had to undertake for the last few
days. Fatigue and exhaustion overcame them and soon
they went into a deep and peaceful slumber. Then the
rain came. It rained during the night but more heavily
towards the Meccan camp. Due to the rain, the Wadi bed
became soft but firm which was an advantage to the
Muslims. This rain was alluded to in the Qur’an in
verse 8:11 as a purification of Allah. At night, as
mentioned in 8:45 Muhammad imagined the army of
Quraysh to be weak.

Both sides were restless until morning broke. At dawn,
while Muhammad was organizing his men into ranks, a
few thirsty Quraysh men approached the well for water.
Muhammad prayed to Allah for their destruction.

The Muslims hoisted three banners; one for the
refugees, in the hands of Musab, one for the
Khazarites, by al-Hobab and one for the Bani Aws by
Sad ibn Muadh.

The Quraysh also drew up their lines and started
moving forward. However, they were divided on the
policy of fighting against their kinsmen. Shayba and
Utba, the two Quraysh chiefs strongly urged that the
attack should be abandoned. It should be remembered
that Utba was the father of Hind, the wife of Abu
Sufyan b. Harb and Shayba was Utba’s brother (i.e.,
Hind’s uncle). They provided shelter to Muhammad while
he (Muhammad) was driven out from Taif by the
stone-pelting street boys. Utba and Shayba simply
wanted the reparation (blood money) for the killing of
their confederate (Amr b. al-Hadrami). So Utbah sent a
message to Abu Jahl to retreat from his (Abu Jahl’s)
cousin (i.e., Muhammad).

One of Utba’s sons, Abu Hudhayfah was a new Jihadist,
and he was with Muhammad. That was why Utbah did not
want to fight with Muhammad-Abu Jahl propagated this
and condemned the cowardice of Utba to fight the
Muslim army. Amr b. Hadrami’s brother, Amir b.
al-Hadrami exhorted his people to take revenge for the
killing of his brother. So reluctantly, Utba agreed to
proceed with the battle, but expressed his desire not
to kill Muhammad notwithstanding the raging bitter
enmity and hatred between the two sides. Just then
Omayr, a Quraysh arrowman brought the news of the
Muslim army’s preparation for a war. He proposed a
peaceful settlement with the Muslim army but Abu Jahl
rejected the proposal. So, the Quraysh army got ready
for a fight. They moved slowly over the intervening
sand hills that were made difficult from the previous
night’s rain. However, as mentioned earlier, the rain
brought an advantage to Muhammad by rendering the
ground in front of Muhammad lighter and firmer to walk
upon. Another disadvantage of the Quraysh was that
they faced the rising sun before them while Muhammad’s
army faced towards the west.

As soon as Muhammad had finished organizing his army
ranks, he faced the advancing column of the Quraysh
appearing over the rising sands in front. While
praying to Allah for His assistance so that his little
army would not vanquish, he was very concerned and
went inside his little hut for a consultation with Abu
Bakr. To assure His unflinching aid, Allah revealed
8:46. This verse gave the encouragement to the Muslim
soldiers to advance to victory. Another verse 2:42-44
was also revealed. Other important verses related to
Badr battle were doubling the army of Medina in
3:18……etc.

The Quraysh army now moved close, but the Muslim army
did not move from their position which was at a much
higher elevation than the Quraysh army and was,
therefore, more advantageous to shoot arrows and
spears at the enemy. Observing the strength of Quraysh
army, Muhammad became nervous and started praying
vigorously. This time, Allah sent him the assurance:
like 20 for 200…..etc through verses 8:65, 66. Allah
also forbade the Jihadists, in verses 8:15-16, from
fleeing from a combat. In fact, ever since then, this
provision has become a Sharia Law (Islamic Law) on
combat (Reliance of The Traveller, p.659).

 

While this preparation was going on, Hakim b. Hizam,
followed by a few other of the Quraysh, went to drink
water from the cistern that Muhammad had dug. Every
Quraysh man who came to drink was killed on that day
with the exception of Hakim b. Hizam. It is not clear
why Muhammad had decided to spare the life Hakim b.
Hizam. None of the biographers give a convincing
reason for Muhammad’s mercy upon him. However, we
learn that Hakim b. Hizam later became a Muslim. Being
alarmed at the fate of thirsty Quraysh, Abd al-Aswad
Makhzami from the Quraysh sought to destroy the trough
that the Muslims had just built, and vowed to drink
water from the cistern that Muhammad had dug. When he
went out, and before he could reach the cistern,
Hamzah attacked him and cut off his foot and half of
his leg. Abd al-Aswad crawled with his gravely wounded
body towards the cistern and flung himself in it and
drank the water from the spring reservoir. Hamzah hit
him again with a blow that killed him on the spot. The
battle now began. It was Friday, the 15th of March,
624CE (17th Ramadan, AH2). Although it was the fasting
month, none of the Jihadists, not even the Apostle of
Allah, fasted during fighting.

In the beginning, the three Quraysh, Utbah b. Rabiah,
his brother Shaybah b. Rabiah and Utba’s son al-Walid
challenged the Muslims for single combats with them.
First, Utbah b. Rabiah, refusing to fight with the
Ansars asked the Quraysh in Muhammad’s camp to fight
him in a single combat. They wanted to fight only with
the people from their own tribe, namely their cousins,
from the sons of al-Muttalib. So, when three Medina
citizens stepped forward Muhammad called them back and
asked his kinsmen, the sons of Hashim to arise and
fight instead. Following Muhammad’s instruction,
Hamzah, Ali and Obaydah (the uncle and the cousin
respectively of Muhammad) went for the battle. Hamza
wore an Ostrich feather in his breast, and Ali wore a
white plume (a feather of horse hair) in his helmet.

Then Utba called his son, Walid, to arise and fight.
He fought with Ali. It was a short combat. Ali
mortally wounded Walid with his sword. When Utba moved
forward, Hamza met him and killed him. Shayba now
fought with Obaydah. Both of them were quite old. They
battled for a while. At last, Shayba dealt a sword-cut
on the leg of Obaydah that nearly severed his leg and
brought him to the ground. Witnessing this, Hamza and
Ali rushed on Shayba and killed him. Obaydah survived
for a few days, then he died.

The fighting then became general and a free-for-all.
The first Muslim killed was Umar’s freed slave, Mihja,
slain by Amir ibn al-Hadrami. Then Haritha b. Suraqah
was killed. To incite his followers, Muhammad invoked
the prospect of paradise to those who were slain. This
motivated even a sixteen years-old boy, Umayr b.
al-Humam, who was eating dates. He threw the dates
away and joined in the fighting. The boy was simply
surprised to learn from Muhammad that all he had to do
to go to paradise was to join in the Jihad and be
killed. Soon, he was killed. Muhammad now exhorted
that Allah loves fanatic Jihadists. Hearing this, an
extremist, Auf b. Harith, asked Muhammad: ‘O apostle
of God, what makes the Lord laugh with joy at His
servant? He answered, ”When he plunges into midst of
the enemy without mail.” Auf drew off the mail-coat
that was on him and threw it away: then he seized his
sword and fought the enemy till he was slain."
Whenever you watch on TV suicide bombers in action,
remember those few words by the Prophet of mercy and
you will surely understand what impelling force
propels these fanatics to create the mind-boggling
terror and to blow them apart.

The battle raged. For further invigoration of the
Jihadists, Muhammad stooped down, lifted a handful of
pebbles and threw them towards the Quraysh, crying
aloud, “May their faces be deformed.” Allah, by
declaring that it was not the act of Muhammad but that
of Allah in verse 8:17, fully approved Muhammad’s
symbolic action. The Muslim army was now full of
enthusiasm and in extreme fighting-vigour that the
Quraysh army failed to withstand. As the fighting
raged, Muhammad sent an instruction to his soldiers
that Abul Bakhtari and al-Abbas, Muhammad’s two uncles
were not to be killed. It is reported that al-Abbas
was a secret agent of Islam at Mecca, but the reason
to spare the life of Abul Bakhtari is not clear,
although Ibn Ishak states that Abul Bkhtari was
sympathetic to Muhammad when some pagans tormented him
(Muhammad) at Ka’ba. When many Jihadists protested at
this unexpected show of mercy for a few selected enemy
combatants, Umar threatened to cut off their heads.
Thus, the dissenters had no choice but to comply with
their master’s request. Ibn Ishaq reports that,
besides the general killing in the battle, four
apostates were specifically targeted for slaughter.
These four Quraysh embraced Islam but did not migrate
to Medina with Muhammad because their family members
obstructed their departure by confining them in their
homes. Later, they left Islam and joined the Quraysh
in Badr. Muhammad had no mercy for them. All of them
were slain by the Jihadists. Muhammad even invented a
verse (4:97) to justify their killing.

004.097

When angels take the souls of those who die in sin
against their souls, they say: "In what (plight) Were
ye?" They reply: "Weak and oppressed Were we in
the earth." They say: "Was not the earth of Allah
spacious enough for you to move yourselves away
(From evil)?" Such men will find their abode in Hell,-
What an evil refuge!

The spirit and frenzy of killing among the Jihadists
was so intense that Hazrat Umar killed his own
maternal uncle, al-As b. Hisham b. al-Mughira.
(Remember? He was proxy fighting for Abu Lahab, the
great enemy of Islam!)

While the fighting continued, Muhammad remained at his
shelter with Abu Bakr praying to Allah for victory. He
implored Allah to send His assistance to the Muslims.
So Allah replied in 8:9 to assist Muhammad with
thousands of angels! It was a stormy winter day with a
ferocious gusty wind blowing around. Three strong
blasts of severe storm lashed the battlefield, and
Muhammad immediately ascribed them as the angels sent
by Allah to help the Jihadists. He told his fighting
men that the first blast was one thousand angels led
by the archangel Gabriel, the second blast was one
thousand angels led by the archangel Michael and the
third blast was another one thousand angels led by the
archangel Saraphel.. Thus, as confirmed in verse
3:124, Allah initially sent three thousand angel
soldiers to help the Muslim fighters. When fighting
became tougher Muhammad requested further
reinforcement from his Allah and Allah immediately
complied by sending another two thousand angels. Thus,
as told in verse 3:125, in all, five thousand
invisible angels from the almighty Allah, in addition
to the three hundred plus Jihadists were required for
the Muslim victory. The fanatic Jihadists claimed that
the signs of the angels at Badr were white turbans. or
were they yellow turbans?

Here is a Hadith from Sahih Bukhari that says that
Gabriel came down to help Muhammad:

Volume 5, Book 59, Number 330:

Narrated Ibn 'Abbas:

The Prophet said on the day (of the battle) of Badr,
"This is Gabriel holding the head of his horse and
equipped with arms for the battle.”

Thus, with the help of Gabriel the Quraysh started
faltering. The heavy sands on which they stood impeded
their movements. Some of their ranks gave way.
Confusion raged and they started to retreat; began
running and the Muslims were pressing after them to
capture those of the Quraysh whom they did not kill in
the battlefield. The Muslims followed their retreating
steps, slaying or taking captive those that fell into
their hands. The Quraysh, in their haste to escape,
cast away their armour and abandoned their beasts of
burden with all their camps and equipment. Seventy
(some say forty-nine) Quraysh were killed and around
the same number were taken prisoners. The Muslims lost
only fourteen of their men, eight were Medina citizens
and six were refugees. They also took many Quraysh
nobles as captives. Muhammad gave orders not to kill
his uncle al-Abbas. When Abu Hudhayfah (remember? his
father, Utbah bin Rabiah was killed by Ali) protested
about Muhammad’s double- standard and wanted to kill
al-Abbas, while Umar threatened to cut-off the head of
Abu Hudhayfah. The Muslim soldiers caught a fleeing
Abu al-Bakhtari (another uncle of Muhammad) along with
his rider companion. The Jihadists agreed to spare the
life of al-Bakhtari (as per Muhammad’s instruction)
but not the life of his companion. When Bakhtari
sought to protect the life of his companion rider the
Muslims declined. So Bakhtari fought the Muslim and
was killed. This news was brought to Muhammad.

In all, the Muslims took seventy (some say forty-four)
Quraysh as captives. Sa’d b. Muadh wanted to kill all
the prisoners, saying, “This was the first defeat
inflicted by Allah on the polytheists, and killing the
prisoners would have been more pleasing to me than
sparing them.” However, the prisoners were distributed
to the Muslims for their safe keeping until Muhammad
returned to Medina.

There is a heart-wrenching tale of how cruelly the
Jihadists treated some captives. Umayah b. Khalaf was
a polytheist, but he was a friend of Abd Umar, the new
convert to Islam. Therefore, Umayah and his son Ali
volunteered Abd Umar to become the prisoner of a
Muslim. The famous Jihadist, Abd al Rahman b. Awf took
charge of him in the expectation of a large ransom. It
is reported that Umayah used to torment Bilal, the
well-known Negro crier of Islamic prayer calls. When
Bilal saw that Umayah and his son Ali were being led
away by Abd al Rahman b. Awf, he shouted out to the
Muslims to kill his former tormentor. Abd Rahman b.
Awf immediately repudiated Bilal by calling him
(Bilal) the son of a black woman and commanded him not
to kill Umayamah and his young son, Ali. However, this
plea of Abd al Rahman fell on deaf ears. On the cry of
Bilal, other Muslims hacked Umayyah b. Khalaf and his
son Ali to death and cut them into pieces. Abd al
Rahman b Awf then cursed Bilal for killing his captive
as he missed the opportunity of ransoming his captives
(Umayyah b. Khalaf and his son).

Muhammad’s son-in-law, Abu al-Aas was also taken a
prisoner. Khadija (Muhammad’s first wife) was his
aunt. His mother was Hala d. Khuwaylid. Khadija used
to regard him as her own son. Abu al-Aas did not
embrace Islam and refused to divorce his wife Zaynab,
Muhammad’s eldest daughter. He joined the Quraysh in
the march against Muhammad at Badr.

The other famous Quraysh taken as captive were: Amr,
Abu Sufyan’s son (not from Hind but from another wife
of Abu Sufyan b. Harb) and Amir b. Al-Hadrami, Abu
Sufyan’s close friend. Another son of Abu Sufyan,
Hanzala was killed at Badr.

As soon as the battle was over, there was widespread
plundering by the Muslim soldiers. The Jihadists also
told the incredible story that the heads of
polytheists would fall off before a Muslim’s sword
touched them. This they ascribed as help from the
angels.

Abu Jahl, one of Muhammad’s uncles, was an implacable
foe of Muhammad. Muhammad had such an unrelenting
hatred for him that he gave him the appellation, Abu
Jahl (“father of folly”) to his original respectable
name of Abul Hakam (“father of wisdom”). Not being
satisfied with such a sordid act, Muhammad wanted Abu
Jahl to be killed. To carry out Muhammad’s
instruction, Muadh b. Amr, along with two Medina
youths, Auf b. Afra and Muwawwidh b. Afra, the two
sons of Afra, set out to search and slay Abu Jahl.
Muadh found Abu Jahl in a thicket and attacked him. He
brought Abu Jahl to the ground by a blow that cut Abu
Jahl’s leg into two. Abu Jahl’s son, Ikrima struck
Muadh and severed one of his arms, hanging only by the
skin. Muadh then put his foot on the hanging arm,
pulled it off, and went on fighting until the extreme
pain forced him to quit the fight. At that time
Muwawwidh b. Afra and his brother Auf b. Afra arrived
at the site and killed the mortally wounded Abu Jahl.
After the killing of Abu Jahl, they went back to fight
the Quraysh and themselves were killed. When the news
of a dying Abu Jahl reached Muhammad, he instructed
his servant, Abd Allah b. Masud to search for Abu
Jahl’s corpse. Abd Allah b. Masud went out and found a
dying Abu Jahl in the shrub grasping for his last
breath. Abu Jahl was still breathing when Muhammad’s
servant, Abd Allah ran up and cut off his head and
carried it to his master. Gloating from victory,
Muhammad said, “The head of the enemy of Allah.” Abd
Allah then cast the bloody head of Abu Jahl at his
pitiless master’s feet. Muhammad said, “It is more
acceptable to me than the choicest camels in all
Arabia.” Then Muhammad rewarded Abd Allah b. Masud
with the sword of murdered Abu Jahl. Sunaan Abu Dawud
records it in this way:

Book 14, Number 2716:

Narrated Abdullah ibn Mas'ud:

   At the battle of Badr the Apostle of Allah
gave me Abu Jahl's sword, as I had killed him.

We read in Sahih Bukhari that two boys killed Abu Jahl
and Muhammad rewarded them. Here is the Hadith from
Sahih Bukhari:

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 369:

Narrated 'Abdur-Rahman bin 'Auf:

   While I was standing in the row on the day (of
the battle) of Badr, I looked to my right and
my left and saw two young Ansari boys, and I
wished I had been stronger than they. One of
them called my attention saying, "O Uncle! Do
you know Abu Jahl?" I said, "Yes, what do you
want from him, O my nephew?" He said, "I have
been informed that he abuses Allah's Apostle.
By Him in Whose Hands my life is, if I should
see him, then my body will not leave his body
till either of us meet his fate." I was
astonished at that talk. Then the other boy
called my attention saying the same as the
other had said. After a while I saw Abu Jahl
walking amongst the people. I said (to the
boys), "Look! This is the man you asked me
about." So, both of them attacked him with
their swords and struck him to death and
returned to Allah'S Apostle to inform him of
that. Allah's Apostle asked, "Which of you has
killed him?" Each of them said, "I Have killed
him." Allah's Apostle asked, "Have you cleaned
your swords?" They said, "No. " He then looked
at their swords and said, "No doubt, you both
have killed him and the spoils of the deceased
will be given to Muadh bin Amr bin Al-Jamuh."
The two boys were Muadh bin 'Afra and Muadh
bin Amr bin Al-Jamuh.

My guess is that those two boys referred in the above
Hadith were the two sons of Afra. Here is another
Hadith from Sahih Bukhari on the last few moments of
Abu Jahl:

Volume 5, Book 59, Number 300:

Narrated Anas:

   The Prophet said, "Who will go and see what
has happened to Abu Jahl?" Ibn Mas'ud went and
found that the two sons of 'Afra had struck
him fatally (and he was in his last breaths).
'Abdullah bin Mas'ud said, "Are you Abu Jahl?"
And took him by the beard. Abu Jahl said, "Can
there be a man superior to one you have killed
or one whom his own folk have killed?"

The battle over, Muhammad gave orders that all the
enemy corpses, including that of Abu Jahl and his
severed head, be thrown into a well. Twenty-four dead
bodies of the infidels were thrown in this filthy
well. (See Sahih Bukhari, vol. 5, book 59, number
314.) When this was duly done, he stood at the well,
talked to the corpses of the Quraysh, haranguing them
for their folly, disbelief and for rejecting him as
the messenger of Allah. When the Muslims asked him if
the dead could hear, Muhammad replied that the dead
could indeed hear better than the living, except that
the deceased could not reply. Umayyah b. Khalaf’s body
was not thrown into the well. His body started
decaying. So they covered it with stones. Sahih
Bukhari records:

Volume 2, Book 23, Number 452:

Narrated Ibn 'Umar:

   The Prophet looked at the people of the well
(the well in which the bodies of the pagans
killed in the Battle of Badr were thrown) and
said, "Have you found true what your Lord
promised you?" Somebody said to him, "You are
addressing dead people." He replied, "You do
not hear better than they but they cannot
reply."

Among the pile of dead bodies was the corpse of Utba
b. Rabiah, the father of Abu Hudhayfa, the newly
recruited Islamic Jihadist. When Muhammad observed
some sadness in Hudhayfa’s face he blessed him,
thinking that Hudhayfah was probably saddened by his
father’s death. On this, the Jihadi son of Utba
replied that his sadness was due to the unbelief of
his father and not for his death! The Muslim son of
Utbah, Hudhayfah regretted that his father did not
embrace Islam after all!! Such was the blind devotion
and resolve of the Jihadists to fanaticism.

These obsequies of the infidels done, the Muslims
remained in the battlefield until the end of the day.
Then they carried their dead and wounded and retired
to a valley, several miles from Badr, and buried their
slain comrades there. Now was the time to wrangle over
war booty. When the rest of the Quraysh army
disappeared, the Muslims engaged themselves in the
gathering of spoils. Muhammad promised every Jihadist
that he could keep the booty he (the Jihadist) took
personally. Thus, every Jihadist was allowed to retain
the plunder of those whom he had killed with his own
hands. Those who did not fight directly, but protected
Muhammad also wanted equal share of the booty. Some
people complained that Muhammad had taken a beautiful
red vestment (official garment) without the knowledge
of others. So, Allah revealed the verse 3:161:“It is
not for a Prophet to conceal booty……..,” exonerating
Muhammad of any embezzlement of war spoils. A dispute
arose as to the distribution of spoils regarding who
gets more and who gets less. Muhammad had to intervene
with a revelation (8:41) from Allah. In this verse,
the almighty proclaimed one-fifth booty is to be
set-aside for Him and His dearest Prophet. Muhammad
also prided himself that booty was made lawful only to
him and not to other Prophets, as he was the most
favourite of Allah. In accordance with this command of
Allah, the rest of the spoils were gathered into a
common stock for a fair distribution later, and
Abdullah b. Ka’b, an officer, was appointed the
guardian of the spoils. The Muslim army then started
their return march to Medina.

The next day, the spoils were divided under a tree
near Saffra. Everyone got equal share after one-fifth
was set-aside for Muhammad. Horsemen received each two
extra portions for their horses. Every man got a
camel, a leather couch or some other item. Muhammad
took as booty the famous camel of Abu Jahl. He later
used it for conducting raids and as a stud for
breeding camels. Reciting verse 55:45 and ascribing
this booty as a gift from Allah, he also took the
sword, Dhu al-Faqr belonging Munabbih b. al-Hajjaj. As
per the spoil distribution rule, he also had the
exclusive right to choose his most favourite item
before they were duly disbursed. The captives were
also re-distributed among Muhammad’s companions for
their fate to be decided at Medina.

The true blood-thirsty character of Muhammad was
unveiled when the Muslim soldiers halted at Saffra.
While distributing the captives, Muhammad recognised
al-Nadr b. al-Harith, a Quraysh poet whom the
Jihadists had captured. While Muhammad was at Mecca,
al-Nadr composed verses that were superior to the
Qur’an. Muhammad was greatly enraged by al-Nadr’s
compositions. As alluded to in verse 8:31 (Dashti,
p.47), Al-Nadr b. al-Harith also criticized Qur’anic
verses by uttering that they (the verses) were only
fables of the ancients, that the Meccans had heard
similar verses before.Muhammad had no kindness for
al-Nadr. To quench his thirst for revenge, the Prophet
of mercy gave orders that the hapless al-Nadr be
killed. Ali carried out Muhammad’s order by beheading
al-Nadr at Saffra, right in front of Muhammad. This
was the tolerance Allah’s best creation had for his
opponents who dared to challenge him intellectually.
Rodinson writes that Muhammad was extremely sensitive
to intellectual attack on him. Having finished his
critic, a satisfied Muhammad now gave order to march
ahead for Medina.

Two days later, the Muslim army stopped at
Irqu’l-Zabya, midway between Badr and Medina. Here
Allah’s Apostle wanted to extinguish further, his lust
for blood and retribution. Uqbah b. Abi Muyat, another
prisoner, whose daughter was married to Abu Sufyan b.
Harb’s son, ‘Amr b. Abi Sufyan, was ordered out for
execution. The ‘offender’ pleaded for mercy in the
name of his little daughter. But Muhammad had no mercy
for him. What did Uqba do to deserve such a terrible
punishment from the Prophet of compassion and
kindness? Muhammad claimed that Uqba tormented him
when he preached his religion of love and compassion
(Islam) at Ka’ba. Without showing even an atom of pity
or kindness to his fallen foe, Muhammad ordered the
killing of Uqba. This is how it is described by Ibn
Ishaq: “When the apostle ordered him to be killed
‘Uqba said, ‘But who will look after my children, O
Muhammad?’ ‘Hell’, he said, and ‘Asim b. Thabit b.
Abul-Aqlah al-Ansari killed him according to what Abu
‘Ubayda b. Muhammad b. ‘Ammar b. Yasir told me.” Some
biographers note that it was Ali who killed Uqba.

On the killing of those two prisoners, Rodinson
(Rodinson, p.168) writes, “On the other hand he gave
free rein to his anger against two men who had
attacked him on an intellectual level. They had
studied Jewish and Persian sources and had asked him
awkward questions. They had scoffed at him and his
divine messages. They could look for no mercy.”

Two additional prisoners were also killed; they were:
Naufal b. Khuweilid whom Ali killed and Mabad b. Wahb
whom Umar beheaded. It is reported that the latter
refused to accept his defeat and praised al-Lat and
al-Uzza (two idols) in the presence of Muhammad. The
reason of killing Naufal is not known. So, in all,
seven prisoners were slaughtered before the Muslim
army, along with the rest of the prisoners arrived at
Medina.

To spread the news of Muslim victory at Badr, Muhammad
now dispatched Zayd b. Harith to Medina ahead of the
arrival of the Muslim army contingent. When Zayd
arrived at Medina, he heard the news of the death of
Ruqayyah, Muhammad’s daughter. People were preparing
the burial of her when Zayd arrived at Medina with the
sweet news of Muslim’s triumph at Badr.

On the next day, Muhammad arrived at Medina with the
war booty and received the sad news of the death and
burial of his daughter Ruqyyah during his absence. As
mentioned before, Ruqayyah’s husband, Uthman b. Affan,
could not join in the plunder due to his wife’s
illness. Nevertheless, Muhammad rewarded his mourning
son-in-law in the equal share of the spoils. A few
months later, Uthman married Muhammad’s last unmarried
daughter, Umm Kulthum, who was previously married to a
son of Abu Lahab, then became separated from him. When
the remaining people of Medina congratulated the
Jihadists for their good catch, the Jihadists gloated
over the slaughtering of the polytheists. Many
Jihadists even admitted that slaughtering the infidels
was good fun.

In the evening of next day, the rest of the Jihadists,
along with the captives arrived at Medina. Watching
the crestfallen, haggard, pitiful and depressed
captives, many Medinites were sorrowful for them.
After all, many of these manacled prisoners were their
kith and kin, their own flesh and blood. A glimpse of
this flow of compassion is observed from the sympathy
that Muhammad’s second wife, Sauda showed to a
prisoner. Sauda had gone to comfort the lamentation of
a family member of Afra, a citizen of Medina who had
lost two sons in Badr, as mentioned earlier. On her
return, she found Abu Yazid Suhayl b. Amr, the brother
of her late husband (i.e., her brother-in law), now a
prisoner, standing by her house with his hands tied
behind his neck. Sauda preferred that instead of being
caught a captive by Muhammad, Abu Yazid should have
chosen an honorable death. However, Muhammad
admonished her for saying such words. Filled with pity
and compassion, she wanted to loosen the captive’s
bound hands. When she sought Muhammad’s approval, a
stern Muhammad asked her not to do that. We also learn
from her narration that during this period, the women
of Arabia did not wear any veil (Hijab) and they were
free to move on their own. Her depiction of the fierce
nature of Muhammad also exposes the myth that
Muhammad’s relation with his wives was cordial and
loving; for, Sauda clearly said that she was deeply
scared of Muhammad. Here is her own words: “Suddenly
the Prophet’s voice startled me: ‘Sauda would you stir
up trouble against God and his apostle?’ I said, “By
God, I could hardly contain myself when I saw Abu
Yazid in this state and that is I said what I did.”’

Nonetheless, overall, the people of Medina treated the
prisoners with some kindness. They were given food and
shelter and were not tortured, though it is reported
that Hazrat Umar wanted to pull out Suhayl’s (another
prisoner) teeth by saying to the messenger of Allah:
‘Let me pull out Suhayl’s two front teeth; his tongue
will stick out and he will never be able to speak
against you.’ But Muhammad objected to any such
mutilation of the prisoners. The good treatment of the
Meccan prisoners was also in the interest of their
Muslim captors if they (the Muslims) wanted good
ransoms from the captives’ relatives-they knew this
truth. The Muslims were quite prudent on this and due
to the kindness shown by the Muslims of Medina; a few
of the poor prisoners accepted Islam and stayed in
Medina, it is claimed. It is reported that when
Muhammad ordered that all prisoners be fettered,
al-Abbas, Muhammad’s uncle, was also chained. Muhammad
had a sleepless night till his followers unchained
al-Abbas.

Once the euphoria of the victory of Muslim army was
over, it was time to settle the affair of prisoners of
war. As mentioned previously, right from the beginning
the fanatic Jihadist, Sa’d b. Muadah was in favor of
slaughtering all the captives that the Muslims had in
their hands. Hazrat Umar also wanted to behead all the
captives, suggesting that brother kill brother, and
Abu Rawaha wanted to burn them alive. Muhammad was
quite indecisive on this. At first, he too, wanted to
kill the prisoners excepting a few. Abu Bakr suggested
taking ransoms from them. Suddenly, Muhammad found
some merit in what Abu Bakr had proposed. He found a
good opportunity in raising money for his
poverty-stricken followers. Immediately, he claimed
that Allah (via Gabriel) had sent down verse 8:67,
permitting him to take ransom after a wide slaughter,
and verse 8:68, permitting him to enjoy booty. These
two verses made a compromise between a complete
annihilation of the captives and taking ransoms for
their release.

Foremost in Muhammad’s mind was Abu al-Aas, his
son-in-law, who, as written before, became a captive
of the Muslims. When Muhammad’s eldest daughter Zaynab
(i.e., Abu al-Aas’ wife who was living in Mecca),
heard of her husband’s capture, she sent money and
Khadijah’s (her mother, and Muhammad’s first wife)
necklace as ransom for the release of her husband. At
last, Muhammad’s heart was softened (albeit, a little
bit) when he saw the necklace of his deceased wife,
Khadijah. He was certainly concerned, thinking about
Abu al-Aas and his daughter. Next morning, in his
mosque, he sought the opinion of his Jihadist
followers on this matter. They unanimously agreed that
Abu al-Aas be set free without any ransom and be
allowed to return to Mecca. Muhammad was greatly
relieved and freed Abu al-Aas, but with the condition
that upon his arrival at Mecca, Abu al-Aas must
divorce Zaynab and send her to Medina to join her
father. Abu al-Aas promised that he would let Zaynab
return to Muhammad at Medina and, indeed, upon his
arrival at Mecca, he did exactly what he promised. He
made arrangements for Zaynab to leave Mecca. At that
time, Hind (Abu Sufyan’s wife) was friendly with
Zaynab. Despite the bitter enmity between Muhammad and
Abu Sufyan, Hind volunteered to provide any material
help that Zaynab needed to escape to her father. But
Zaynab thought it was prudent to keep her plan of
escape a secret. So, at an opportune time, Zaynab
borrowed a camel to leave for Medina. Her
brother-in-law accompanied her. Learning the departure
of Zaynab, two Quraysh pursued Zaynab’s camel and
caught up with her at Dhu Tuwa. One Quraysh, Habbar b.
al-Aswad threatened her with a spear. Zaynab was
pregnant at that time. It is reported that she fell
down from the camel and had a miscarriage. Then Habbar
tormented Zaynab, but Abu Sufyan intervened to let her
escape from the harassment of Habbar. Abu Sufyan did
not bear any vengeance whatsoever against Muhammad’s
daughter Zaynab, and advised her to leave Mecca
secretly. So, after a few days, when all the din and
bustle of Badr had subsided, Zaynab surreptitiously
escaped Mecca at night.

Next, to be decided was the fate of al-Abbas,
Muhammad’s uncle. The Jihadists brought a naked
al-Abbas in front of Muhammad. Muhammad at first, had
to find some clothing for his undressed uncle. Here is
the Hadith from Sahih Bukhari on this:

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 252:

   Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah:

   When it was the day (of the battle) of Badr,
prisoners of war were brought including
Al-Abbas who was undressed. The Prophet looked
for a shirt for him. It was found that the
shirt of 'Abdullah bin Ubai would do, so the
Prophet let him wear it. That was the reason
why the Prophet took off and gave his own
shirt to 'Abdullah. (The narrator adds, "He
had done the Prophet some favor for which the
Prophet liked to reward him.")

Because al-Abbas was a wealthy man Muhammad stipulated
that al-Abbas should ransom himself as well as his
nephews and his confederates. On this, al-Abbas
claimed that he was a silent Muslim; that he was
forced to fight against the Muslims. Muhammad still
wanted ransom from al-Abbas. In fact, Muhammad owed a
good amount of money to al-Abbas, but when al-Abbas
insisted that that debt should be used as ransom,
Muhammad declined. Such was the greed for money by the
Prophet of mercy. In the end, Muhammad took 20 ounces
of gold (about US$ 8,000 in to-day’s money) from
al-Abbas for his release.

At first, the Quraysh played it cool in ransoming
their captives so that the Muslims did not demand high
prices for the release of them. Abu Sufyan refused to
pay any ransom for his son ‘Amr. When a Muslim, Sa’d
b. al-Numan, went to perform Umra, Abu Sufyan held him
hostage in exchange for his son, Amr. Muhammad had no
choice but to set free ‘Amr b. Abi Sufyan for the
release of Sa’d. Muhammad insisted on a high ransom
for a Meccan because his son was a rich merchant. The
son paid a ransom of 4,000 Dirhams (please calculate
in US$, using the conversion mentioned below) for his
father’s release.

Overall, Muhammad received a large sum of money as a
ransom for the Quraysh prisoners. The ransom money for
a prisoner varied from one thousand Dirhams to as much
as four thousand Dirhams. It is reported that the
Quraysh paid 250,000 Dirhams [yes, a cool quarter of a
million Dirhams; take out your calculator and estimate
how much it is in to-day’s money; use the conversion
of one Dirham = 1/10 Dinar; one Dinar = 4.235 grams of
gold; and in case you have forgotten, one ounce = 32.1
grams] as ransom to free their kith and kin who were
taken as prisoners at Badr II. The average ransom for
a prisoner was four thousand (4,000) Dirhams. Sahih
Bukhari states that besides booty and ransom money for
the captives, each Jihadi received a pension of five
thousand (5,000) Dirhams per year. Here is the Hadith
from Sahih Bukhari:

Volume 5, Book 59, Number 357:

Narrated Qais:

   The Badr warriors were given five thousand
(Dirhams) each, yearly. 'Umar said, "I will
surely give them more than what I will give to
others."

Some prisoners who did not have the means to pay a
ransom volunteered to teach ten Muslim boys the skill
of reading and writing for each such prisoner. When
their tuition was complete, the prisoner was then
released. Zayd ibn Thabit, the poet (later, Muhammad’s
secretary) is said to have learned writing this way.
This tells us that the Meccan people were, in general,
literate while the Medina followers of Muhammad were
mostly illiterate; still, the Muslims called the
Meccans ‘ignorant’!

The victory at Badr opened a new chapter in the
propagation of the nascent faith of Islam. Realizing
the power of the sword, Muhammad was now convinced
that for his fascistic doctrine to triumph, he must
win militarily. Thus, from now on, sword became the
language of Islam (observe the national flag of Saudi
Arabia closely) and engaging in warfare for booty and
captives became the modus operandi of the new
Jihadists for their survival and material enrichment.
Commenting on this, Maxine Rodinson writes that the
only motive for Badr II was booty. The victory at Badr
became a rallying point for Muhammad’s religion, and
to the disbelievers Islam now became associated with
fear, terror, plunder and bloodshed. On the other
hand, the Quraysh and the polytheists also recognized
the need for a decisive military victory to contain
the spread of menacing Islam.

Chapter Four

‘Defined in Psychological terms, a fanatic is a man
who consciously overcompensates a secret
doubt’---Aldous Huxley (1894-1963)

Terror Ten

The Murder of Asma bt. Marwan at Medina by Umayr b.
Adiy al-Khatmi -March, 624CE

Immediately after his return from the victory at Badr,
Muhammad felt strong enough to put a halt to his
critics who were displeased that his arrival at
Medina, along with his horde of marauding Jihadists
had caused fear and serious divisions among the
Medinites. Many Jews were greatly disturbed at the
prospect of a militarily strong army of the Muslims
and feared that they might be Muhammad’s next victims,
because they (the Jews) possessed great wealth. During
those days, the most successful method of hurling
epithets and criticisms to opponents was through
poems. Therefore, poets in those days were what
journalists are today. One such poetess was Asma bint
Marwan. She belonged to the B. Aws and did not hide
her dislike for Islam. She was married to Yazid b.
Zayd, a man of Banu Khatma and had five sons and a
suckling infant. Some authors suggest that her father
was a Jew. After the Badr war, she composed some
satirical poems. The verses spread from mouth to mouth
and finally reached the ears of the Muslims and they
were greatly offended. Muhammad could not at all
endure satire or vituperation. Therefore, an incensed
Muhammad decided that it was time to get rid of her.

In his mosque, at night, Muhammad sought a volunteer
to assassinate Asma bt. Marwan. A blind man, Umayr b.
Adiy al-Khatmi, belonging to the same tribe as Asma’s
husband (i.e., Banu Khatma) stood up to complete the
job. In the dead of night he crept into her apartment.
Her little children then surrounded Asma while she
slept. Hugging her bosom was her infant, suckling her
breast. The blind man, feeling stealthily with his
hand, removed the infant from her breast and plunged
his sword in her belly with such a force that it
passed through her back. This severe blow killed Asma
on the spot. It was just five days before the end of
the month of the sacred month of fasting, Ramadan when
Muslims are not supposed to shed blood.

After murdering Asma, next morning, the killer Umayr
went to pray in the mosque while Muhammad was there.
Muhammad was quite anxious to learn if the mission of
Umayr was a success or not. He said to Umayr, the
killer “Have you slain the daughter of Marwan?’
Commenting on this Ibn S’ad writes, “This was the word
that was first heard from the Apostle of Allah, may
Allah bless him.” When Umayr replied that the job had
been carried out with success, Muhammad said, “You
have helped God and His apostle, O ‘Umayr!’ When Umayr
asked if he would have to bear any evil consequences,
the apostle said, “Two goats won’t butt their heads
about her.” Muhammad then praised Umayr in front of
all gathered for prayer for his act of murder, and
Umayr went back to his people. (Note: Some biographers
suggest that Omayr was Asma’s former husband). Five
days later, the Muslims celebrated the first Eid (the
end of fasting)!

When Omayr, the killer returned to Upper Medina, he
passed the sons of Asma who were burying theirs slain
mother. They accused Umayr of murder of their mother.
Without hesitation, Umayr admitted the accusation
boastfully and threatened to kill the whole family if
they dared to repeat the lampoons that their mother
had composed deriding the Prophet of mercy. This
threat of terror worked wonderfully. The entire tribe
of Asma’s husband (i.e., Banu Khatma) who secretly
hated Islam, now openly professed their adherence,
just to save their lives. Ibn Ishak writes, “That was
the first day that Islam became powerful among B.
Khatma. The day after Bint Marwan was killed the men
of B. Khatma became Muslims because they saw the power
of Islam”.

Muhammad and his followers were now convinced that
terror, plunder, political murder do, indeed, work for
Islam.

Terror Eleven

The Murder of Abu Afak at Medina by Salim b.
‘Umayr-April, 624CE

Abu Afak, a Jew of Medina was a very old man, about
120 years old. He was active in the opposition of
Muhammad’s religion. He too composed some satirical
verses that annoyed the Muslims. One month after his
victory at Badr, Muhammad showed his limit of
tolerance to his intellectual opposition by expressing
his wish to eliminate this old man. At his mosque, the
apostle of Allah sought the service of a volunteer
killer, saying, ‘Who will deal with this rascal for
me?’

A convert by the name of Salim b.‘Umayr, brother of B.
‘Amr b.’Auf from the B. Amr tribe came forward to do
the job. He killed Abu Afak with one blow of his sword
when the latter slept outside his house. (Some say
that Abu Afak was murdered first then Asma). Ibn S’ad
describes this gruesome murder in this way:

“He waited for an opportunity until a hot night came,
and Abu ‘Afak slept in an open place. Salim b. ‘Umayr
knew it, so he placed the sword on his liver and
pressed it till it reached his bed. The enemy of Allah
screamed and the people, who were his followers rushed
him, took him to his house and interred him.”

This perfidious murder alarmed all those in Medina who
did not like Muhammad and his religion. The Jews were
utterly terrified.

Terror Twelve

The Affair of al-Sawiq at Qarkarat al-Qudr by
Muhammad-April, 624CE

This operation was a small reconnaissance by the
Quraysh to gauge the strength and preparedness of
Muhammad to launch further attacks on the Meccans.
After suffering the ignominious defeat at Badr II at
the hands of the emerging force of the Islamic
Jihadists, Abu Sufyan b Harb, the Quraysh leader vowed
not to touch women until he had destroyed the tribes
of al-Aws and al-Khazraj. He gathered two hundred
mounted followers, took the eastern road through the
Nejd and secretly arrived by night, at the settlement
of B. Nadir, a Jewish tribe. However, the Jewish
chief, Huwey refused him admission to the Jewish
quarters. So, Abu Sufyan took refuge with Sallam b.
Mishkan (also known as Abu Rafi), another leading man
of B. Nadir Jews. Sallam offered Abu Sufyan’s party a
hospitable welcome at night, furnishing Abu Sufyan
with the intelligence regarding Medina. At dawn, Abu
Sufyan moved forward stealthily and arrived at the
corn fields and palm gardens of Urayd, a place about
two or three miles to the north-east of Medina. He
burnt these farms and killed two farmers there. Then
he returned to Mecca. Meanwhile, the news spread in
Medina and the Muslims were alarmed. Muhammad followed
in hot pursuit the Abu Sufyan’s army and went as far
as Qarkarat al-Qudr. However, it was a fruitless
pursuit. The Muslims collected some of the provisions
thrown away by the Quraysh men on their return journey
to Mecca to lighten the burden on their horses. The
Muslims brought back the provision that was mostly
barley and as such, it is called the affair of Sawiq.

Terror Thirteen

Raid at Qarkarat al-Qudr Against the Ghatafan and Banu
Sulaym led by Muhammad-May, 624CE

This expedition was taken against the nomad tribes of
Sulaym and Ghatafan who inhabited the plains of Nejd,
to the east of Medina. These tribes belonged to the
same stock of the Quraysh and were probably incited by
Abu Sufyan to commit a plunder upon Medina. Muhammad
came to learn about this impending attack through
intelligence. So, he hastened to surprise them. He
took two hundred men and reached at Qarkarat al-Qudr
but found the place deserted, except for a herd of
five hundred camels under the charge of a single boy.
Muhammad took the five hundred camels as booty and
divided them amongst his men, taking one-fifth for
himself as per Islamic rule on plunder (How much one
camel is worth? My guess is about US$ 300 each. So
this plunder was about US$ 150,000). That meant, from
this raid, he took one hundred camels (i.e.,
equivalent US$ 30,000) for himself. Other Jihadists
received two camels each. The camel boy was taken as a
captive but was released after he accepted Islam.
Muhammad, after leading this raid, stayed at Qarkarat
al-Qudr for three nights and returned to Medina
without any fight. After returning to Medina he
accepted all ransoms for the Quraysh prisoners from
Badr II war.

This handsome ransom from the Quraysh captives and the
camels from the Qarkarat al-Qudr plunder made him
quite rich indeed in a very short time; thus
alleviating, at least temporarily, his and his
followers immediate pecuniary hardship. There was now
a convincing reason to stick to Islam, if one wanted
to benefit materially!

Nonetheless, this booty was not ample to satisfy the
enormous appetite for wealth by the newly recruited
Jihadists. Muhammad was now looking forward to a far
more pelf that he knew very well that only the Jews in
Medina could supply. Feeling a sense of physical
strength from his fanatical followers, he was eagerly
waiting for an opportunity to lay a siege on the Jews
and grab their land and property. Very soon, such an
opportunity came up.

Terror Fourteen

The Ethnic Cleansing of Banu Quaynuqa Jews from Medina
by Muhammad-July, 624CE

As written previously, with the decisive victory at
Badr II and after the assassination of most of his
intellectual critics at Medina, Muhammad quickly
realized that it was time to prove ‘might is right.’
He knew rather well, that the only people who stood,
as a stumbling block on his dream of establishing his
and his Allah’s authority in Medina were the Jews.
These Jews were mostly successful owners of orchards
on the outskirts of Medina. Many of them were
artisans, craftsmen, jewelers and merchants. They were
a wealthy, prosperous community, living in their
fortified quarters on the suburbs of Medina in harmony
with the populace of Medina city. The most prominent
among these Jews were the Banu Quaynuqa, Banu Nadir
and Banu Qurayza. When Muhammad migrated to Medina
these Jewish clans made a covenant with him to live in
tranquility and harmony and to aid him, should any
attack fell on him. Nonetheless, his victory at Badr
II and his brutal killing of many Meccan polytheists
unnerved the Jews and they feared an attack on them
any time soon. They were absolutely correct. Muhammad
was now in a mood to renounce all his treaties with
the Jews and conduct plunder on them, to siege their
fertile, productive land and their exquisite wealth.
In fact, Gabriel brought the decree (8:58) from Allah
that he (Muhammad) was free to break treaty with the
Jews. With Allah on his side, Muhammad started to
threaten the B. Qaynuqa Jews with the consequence of
Badr II unless they accepted Islam. B. Qaynuqa Jews
were the weakest of all the Jewish tribes in Medina.
This is what the prophet of ‘religious tolerance’ told
the B. Qaynuqa Jews in their market:

“O Jews, beware lest God bring on you the like of the
retribution which he brought on Quraysh. Accept Islam,
for you know that I am a prophet sent by God. You will
find this in your scriptures and in God’s covenant
with you.”

Hearing Muhammad’s harangue, the B. Qaynuqa Jews
retaliated by ignoring his plea for Islam and
challenged Muhammad to face them militarily. This is
what they replied to Muhammad:

“Muhammad, do you think that we are like your people?
Do not be deluded by the fact that you met a people
with no knowledge of war and that you made good use of
your opportunity. By God, if you fight us you will
know that we are real men!”

Then Muhammad demanded Jizya tax from the Jews but the
Jews disparaged Muhammad by saying that His Allah was
poor. An angry Allah, in verse 3:181, immediately
promised His retribution to the Jews.

The show of defiance was a fatal error on the part of
B. Qaynuqa; for, this display of insolence by the Jews
was good enough reason for Muhammad and his
over-eager, booty-hungry Jihadists to wait to conduct
an attack on them. Allah also revealed verse 3:12, 13,
assuring Muhammad of his victory against the Jews. In
addition, the Muslims also complained of sowing
discord between the B. Aws and B. Khazraj by the Jews
by narrating the battle of Buath, in which these two
tribes fought fiercely. It was during this time that
Allah forbade, in verse 5:57, to engage in friendship
by the Muslims with the Jews and the Christians. While
this hostility between the Muslims and the Jews was
simmering, an incident took place that gave Muhammad
the opportunity he was patiently waiting to lay an
attack on the Jews. The incident was as follows:

An Arab girl, married to a Muslim convert of Medina
went to the Jewish shop of a goldsmith in the market
place of Qaynuqa. While waiting for some ornaments,
she sat down. A silly neighbor secretly pinned the
lower hem of her skirt. When she arose, the awkward
expose made everyone laugh. She screamed with shame. A
passing Muslim witnessed the incident and killed the
offending Jew. The brother of the Jew then killed the
Muslim. The family of the murdered Muslim then
appealed to the converts of Medina to take revenge.

The skirmish now became general and Muhammad made no
attempt to mitigate the situation, nor did he try to
bring the offending parties to justice. He immediately
gathered his followers under the white banner in the
hand of Hamzah and marched forward to attack the
Jewish tribe. The Jews took shelter in their fortified
apartments. So, Muhammad laid a siege and a full
blockade was imposed. The siege lasted for fifteen
days. The Jews were expecting help from their Khazraj
allies. But the help did not come. So, the desperate
B. Qaynuqa Jews had no choice but to surrender to
Muhammad. Their hands were tied behind their backs and
preparations were made for their execution. At this
time, Abd Allah ibn Ubayy, the Khazarite and a new
convert to Islam (he was the nemesis of Muhammad at
Medina, Muhammad calling him a hypocrite) intervened.
He could not stand that his old faithful allies would
be massacred in cold blood. He begged Muhammad for
mercy, but Muhammad turned his face away. Abd Allah
persisted. Finally, Muhammad yielded and let the
prisoners escape execution. He then cursed the Jews
and Abd Allah ibn Ubay with Allah’s punishment. Then
Muhammad ordered the Jews of B. Qaynuqa to leave
Medina within three days. They were led to exile by
Ubadah b. al-Samit ibn Samit, one of the Khazarite
leaders to as far as Dhubab. Then the Jews proceeded
to Wadi al-Qura. There they got assistance from the
Jewish inhabitants with carriage until they reached
Adriat, a territory in Syria where they settled
permanently.

Thus, the B. Qaynuqa Jews surrendered their arms and
jewel-making machinery and were exiled from Medina. In
this connection, Tabari writes: “Allah gave their
property as booty to his Messenger and the Muslims.
The Banu Qaynuqa did not have any land, as they were
goldsmiths. The messenger of God took many weapons
belonging to them and the tools of their trade”

Thanks to Allah’s permission for booty and plunder,
Muhammad and the formerly indigent Muslims were really
on their way to become wealthy residents of Medina.

Chapter Five

‘Fascism is a religion; the twentieth century will be
known in history as the century of Fascism’---Benito
Mussoline (1883-1945)

Terror Fifteen

Raid on Ghatafan at Dhu Amarr in Nejd by
Muhammad-June, 624CE

A month after the operation of al-Sawiq Muhammad
learnt that some clans of the Ghatafan tribesmen had
gathered troops at Dhu Amarr in Nejd with aggressive
design. So, Muhammad led an expedition of four hundred
and fifty fighters to search out the enemy and
disperse them. This was the largest military exercise
led by Muhammad prior to the battle of Uhud. However,
the enemy got wind of Muhammad’s departure and took to
hiding. Muhammad’s army was able to capture one man
who gave information about the Ghatafan’s hideout; the
Jihadists proceeded to capture them. The captured man
was forced to convert to Islam and Muhammad used him
as a guide. The enemy soon heard of Muhammad’s
approach and they took sanctuary on the tops of hills.
No fighting took place. Muhammad spent eleven days on
this expedition and then returned to Medina. Ibn Sa’d
reports that a man threatened to kill Muhammad when he
(Muhammad) was sleeping and Allah revealed verse 5:11
when he was unsuccessful, as Muhammad sought the
protection of Allah.

Terror Sixteen

Second Raid on Banu Sulaym at al-Qudr in Buhran by
Muhammad-July, 624CE

Soon after the expulsion of B. Qaynuqa Jews from
Medina, Muhammad heard that a great force of Banu
Sulaym tribesmen from Buhran in al-Qudr was advancing
on Medina. The call for Jihad went out once again, and
soon a Muslim army of between three hundred to three
hundred and fifty men marched out to attack the B.
Sulaym at Buhran. Muhammad failed to track them, and
when he arrived there, he found that the enemy had
broken up. So, after staying there for three nights
(or ten nights, as per Ibn Sa’d) he returned without
meeting the enemy. After returning to Medina he
accepted all ransoms for the Quraysh prisoners
captured during Badr II war.

Terror Seventeen

The Murder of Ka’b b. Ashraf at Medina by Muhammad b.
Maslama-August, 624CE

Ka’b, a poet was the son of a Jewess of B. Nadir. He
was greatly saddened by the victory of Muslims at Badr
II. He made no attempt to conceal his discontent on
the sudden ascent of Muslim power in Medina. He went
to Mecca, and through his poetry, enticed the Quraysh
for revenge. On his return, he further angered the
Muslims by composing lampoons against Muslim women.
Muhammad was greatly distressed that this kind of free
expression might subdue the morale of his followers.
He prayed to Allah for the destruction of Ka’b. Allah,
in verse 4:52 also cursed those who dared to criticize
Muhammad. In his mosque, he requested for volunteers
to get rid of Ka’b b. Ashraf. Muhammad b. Maslama,
belonging to B. Aws stood up and vowed to slay Ka’b b.
Ashraf. He chose four other men from B. Aws as his
accomplices. When the leader of this assassination
squad told Muhammad that to murder Ka’b they might
have to resort to deceit and to tell lies, Muhammad
unhesitatingly permitted them to do so (read the
Hadith quoted below).

The murder team drew up an elaborate plan to dupe Ka’b
b. Ashraf with sweet words and deceitful promises.
They engaged Abu Naila, the foster brother of Ka’b b.
Ashraf for this purpose. Abu Naila went to Ka’b
pretending to borrow some money from him and talked
bad about Muhammad, the Prophet. Ka’b believed him and
demanded some security for the loan. Abu Naila agreed
that they would pledge their arms, and an appointment
for a late hour meeting at the house of Ka’b was
organized. In the evening the band of conspirators
assembled at the house of Muhammad, the Prophet. The
Prophet accompanied them to the outskirts of the town.
They took refuge in the low shrubs of the Muslim
burial ground. The Prophet then parted, giving them
blessing for the success of their mission. The killing
team proceeded and arrived at Ka’b’s house. Ka’b was
then taking rest in his bedroom with his newly married
bride. Abu Naila, his foster brother called out for
him to come down. When Ka’b hastened to climb down,
his wife caught him by his blanket and wanted him not
to go. Ka’b comforted her by saying that it was his
foster brother. He came down and was not alarmed as he
found his callers were not armed. They then wandered
along, conversing on the misfortunes of Medina since
the arrival of Muhammad till they reached a waterfall.
Ka’b’s foster brother found some sweet smell in Ka’b’s
hair and Ka’b told him that it was the smell from his
newly married bride. Suddenly, the traitor seized
Ka’b’s hair, and dragging him to the ground shouting,
‘’Slay him! Slay the enemy of God.” All other
conspirators then struck their swords on Ka’b while he
died making a fearful scream. His assassins then cut
off Ka’b’s head and fled in haste. When they arrived
at the burial ground, they chanted the Takbir (ie
Allahu Akbar). Muahammad heard the Takbir and knew
that the work had been accomplished. At the gate of
the mosque the Prophet welcomed the assassins and
praised them for their victory. The perpetrators threw
the head of Ka’b b Asharf before Muhammad. One of the
assailants was wounded in the mission. The Prophet
praised Allah for what had been done and comforted the
wounded man.

Here is the Hadith from Sahih Bukhari detailing the
murder of Ka’b al-Ashraf.

Volume 5, Book 59, Number 369:

   Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah:

   Allah's Apostle said, "Who is willing to kill
Ka'b bin Al-Ashraf who has hurt Allah and His
Apostle?" Thereupon Muhammad bin Maslamaa got
up saying, "O Allah's Apostle! Would you like
that I kill him?" The Prophet said, "Yes,"
Muhammad bin Maslamaa said, "Then allow me to
say a (false) thing (i.e. to deceive Ka’b).
"The Prophet said, "You may say it." Then
Muhammad bin Maslamaa went to Ka’b and said,
"That man (i.e. Muhammad demands Sadaqa (i.e.
Zakat) from us, and he has troubled us, and I
have come to borrow something from you." On
that, Ka’b said, "By Allah, you will get tired
of him!" Muhammad bin Maslamaa said, "Now as
we have followed him, we do not want to leave
him unless and until we see how his end is
going to be. Now we want you to lend us a
camel load or two of food." (Some difference
between narrators about a camel load or two.)
Ka’b said, "Yes, (I will lend you), but you
should mortgage something to me." Muhammad bin
Mas-lama and his companion said, "What do you
want?" Ka'b replied, "Mortgage your women to
me." They said, "How can we mortgage our women
to you and you are the most handsome of the
'Arabs?" Ka'b said, "Then mortgage your sons
to me." They said, "How can we mortgage our
sons to you? Later they would be abused by the
people's saying that so-and-so has been
mortgaged for a camel load of food. That would
cause us great disgrace, but we will mortgage
our arms to you." Muhammad bin Maslamaa and
his companion promised Ka’b that Muhammad
would return to him. He came to Ka’b at night
along with Ka’b's foster brother, Abu Na'ila.
Ka’b invited them to come into his fort, and
then he went down to them. His wife asked him,
"Where are you going at this time?" Ka’b
replied, "None but Muhammad bin Maslamaa and
my (foster) brother Abu Na'ila have come." His
wife said, "I hear a voice as if dropping
blood is from him, Ka'b said. "They are none
but my brother Muhammad bin Maslamaa and my
foster brother Abu Naila. A generous man
should respond to a call at night even if
invited to be killed." Muhammad bin Maslamaa
went with two men. (Some narrators mention the
men as 'Abu bin Jabr. Al Harith bin Aus and
Abbad bin Bishr). So Muhammad bin Maslamaa
went in together with two men, and sail to
them, "When Ka'b comes, I will touch his hair
and smell it, and when you see that I have got
hold of his head, strip him. I will let you
smell his head." Ka’b bin Al-Ashraf came down
to them wrapped in his clothes, and diffusing
perfume. Muhammad bin Maslamaa said. " have
never smelt a better scent than this. Ka'b
replied. "I have got the best 'Arab women who
know how to use the high class of perfume."
Muhammad bin Maslamaa requested Ka'b "Will you
allow me to smell your head?" Ka'b said,
"Yes." Muhammad smelt it and made his
companions smell it as well. Then he requested
Ka'b again, "Will you let me (smell your
head)?" Ka'b said, "Yes." When Muhammad got a
strong hold of him, he said (to his
companions), "Get at him!" So they killed him
and went to the Prophet and informed him. (Abu
Rafi) was killed after Ka'b bin Al-Ashraf."

For further details on this gruesome murder consult
Ibn Ishaq, p.368 or Tabari, vol.vii, pp.94-97

For further Hadith on Ka’b’s murder consult Sahhi
Muslim, Book 19, Hadith number 4436

Terror Eighteen

The Murder of Ibn Sunyanah at Medina by Muhayyish b.
Masud -July, 624CE

Ibn Sunyanah was a Jewish merchant who was friendly
and helpful to many Muslim converts. But that
friendliness of Ibn Sunaynah did not prevent some
fanatic Jihadists to finish him off, just because he
was a Jew. This was how it all started:

In the morning after the murder of Ka’b b. Ashraf,
Muhammad gave a general permission to his followers to
slay any Jew whom they might chance to meet. Tabari
describes this ordinance of gratuitous killing of any
Jew thus:

The messenger of God said, “Whoever of the Jews falls
into your hands, kill him.” So Muhayyish b. Masud fell
upon Ibn Sunaynah, one of the Jewish merchants who was
in close terms with them and used to trade with them,
and killed him. Huwayyish b. Masud (his brother) at
that time had not accepted Islam; he was older than
Muhayysih, and when (the latter) killed (the Jew), he
began beating him saying, “O enemy of God, have you
killed him? By God you have made much fat in your
belly from his wealth.” Muhayyish said, “I said to
him, ‘By God, if he who commanded me to kill him had
commanded me to kill you, I would have cut off your
head.’” And, by God, that was the beginning of
Huwayyish’s acceptance of Islam. He said, “If Muhammad
had ordered you to kill me. You would have killed me?”
and I replied, “Yes, by God, if he had ordered me to
kill you I would have cut off your head.” “By God,” he
said, “a faith which has brought you to this is indeed
a marvel.” Then Huwayyisah accepted Islam.

In this connection the readers may wish to recall the
beheading of Daniel Pearl, the WSJ journalist. The
Islamic Jihadists killed him the moment he uttered
that he was a Jew. These fanatics simply carried out
what Muhammad had ordained them with respect to the
Jews!

From the Sahih Hadith of Sunaan Abu Dawud, we read the
following:

    Book 19, Number 2996:

    Narrated Muhayyisah:

    The Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) said: If
you gain a victory over the men of Jews, kill
them. So Muhayyisah jumped over Shubaybah, a man
of the Jewish merchants. He had close relations
with them. He then killed him. At that time
Huwayyisah (brother of Muhayyisah) had not
embraced Islam. He was older than Muhayyisah. When
he killed him, Huwayyisah beat him and said: O
enemy of Allah, I swear by Allah, you have a good
deal of fat in your belly from his property.

Terror Nineteen

Plunder of a Quraysh Caravan at Nejd by Zayd b.
Haritha-September, 624CE

The Meccans lived on trade; it was their life-blood,
especially the trade with Syria. Their economy could
not survive if the marauding gang of Muhammad cut off
their trade route. The interminable attack by the
fanatic Muslim Jihadists literally imposed a blockade
on their trade that could very well soon destroy Mecca
and Arabia-the Quraysh and the other Meccans were very
quick to realise this truth. The experience of Badr II
had taught them a good lesson, and they did not want a
repeat of it any more. Therefore, they sought out a
new trade route for their richly laden caravan, plying
between Mecca and Syria. This alternative route was
right through the middle of Nejd, across the desert
and through Iraq. Although this was a lengthy and
arduous journey, this course was thought to be safe
from Muhammad’s hand.

Having decided on this alternative route, the Quraysh
equipped a caravan to traverse the plain land of the
central desert. Safwan headed the caravan. The caravan
carried vessels and bars of silver. The guide was
Furat b. Hayaan who claimed to be able to lead the
caravan through a route unknown to Muhammad. Through
intelligence however, Muhammad got wind of this
caravan and immediately dispatched Zayd b.Haritha in
pursuit of it. Zayd ibn Haritha was a freed slave of
Muhammad and Muhammad adopted him as his son. Later,
Muhammad married this adopted son’s wife Zaynab.This
was the first expedition led by Zayd b. Haritha He was
equipped with one hundred battle-hardened men. He
trailed the caravan and made a sudden attack on it. It
was a success. The leaders of the caravan fled and
Zayd took the booty as well as two prisoners to
Medina. The booty was valued at one hundred thousand
(100,000) Dirhams (using the conversion rate provided
previously convert this to equivalent US$ of today and
you will be surprised). Muhammad kept for himself
one-fifth (i.e., 20,000 Dirhams, definitely a lot of
money during those days). All others received eight
hundred Dirhams per soldier. Furat became a prisoner.
The Muslims said, “If you accept Islam, the Messenger
of God will not kill you.” He accepted Islam and was
allowed to go free.

Terror Twenty

The Murder of Abu Rafi at Khaybar by Abd Allah b.
Unays---December, 624CE

Abu Rafi (he was also known as Sallam ibn Abul-Huqayq)
was a compatriot of Ka’b b. al-Ashraf. He was a leader
of the Khaybar Jews and lived in Hijaj. Like Ka’b b.
al-Ashraf, he lamented the coming of Muhammad in
Medina and composed poems and satires to earn the ire
of Muhammad. Muhammad was contemplating of eliminating
Abu Rafi in the same manner as Ka’b, and was looking
for volunteers to kill him. Soon this opportunity came
to him on a golden platter.

We learnt in Terror 17 above that a death squad formed
by the B. Aws people who murdered Ka’b b. al-Ashraf,
the Jewish poet. When the Khazaraj people heard that
al-Aws had killed Ka’b Ibn al-Ashraf, they wanted to
match this killing by murdering another Jew, and Abu
Rafi became their choice. Thus, a killing competition
developed between the Aws and the Khazaraj. Soon they
sought permission of Muhammad to kill Abu Rafi.
Muhammad, of course, gladly approved their murder plan
and gave them his blessing.

A five-member assassin squad was dispatched to finish
off Abu Rafi. Muhammad selected Abd Allah b. Atik as
the head of this assassin team. After the team arrived
at Khaybar, they went to Abu Rafi’s house by night and
went upstairs through a spiral stair and sought
permission to enter Abu Rafi’s room. Abu Rafi’s wife
came out and enquired about the purpose of their call.
They pretended to be Arab traders. So she let them in.
They entered his room and bolted the door. Abu Rafi’s
wife gave a wild scream; they wanted to kill her too,
but refrained from doing so when they remembered
Muhammad’s injunction to not to kill a woman. On their
threat, Abu Rafi’s wife had to keep her mouth shut
while the assassins ran with open swords after their
prey as Abu Rafi was still in his bed. Then Abdullah
b. Unaya bore down and plunged his sword on the belly
of Abu Rafi until it went right through him.

While escaping, Abd Allah b. Atik fell off the spiral
stairway, bruising severely his leg. His comrades took
him to a nearby water channel and treated him. The
Jews made a futile search for the assassin of Abu Rafi
and then returned to a dying Abu Rafi. To confirm Abu
Rafi’s death, his killer, Abd Allah b. Unays set off
and mingled with the bereaving crowd. Abu Rafi’s wife
mentioned that she could recognize the voice of the
assassin to be that of Abd Allah b. Atik but she was
not certain that Abd Allah Atik would come from a far
off place of Yathrib (Medina) to Khaybar to kill Abu
Rafi. Then she announced the death of Abu Rafi. As per
Abd Allah b. Atik, he had never heard any word more
pleasing than the death of Abu Rafi. Once they were
sure of their victim’s death, the perpetrators
returned to Muhammad and each of them claimed to be
the assassin of Abu Rafi. Muhammad asked them to bring
their swords for examination. From the blood in the
sword he declared that Abd Allah b. Unays had killed
Abu Rafi (Sallam Ibn Abi al-Huqayq). On this murder,
Muhammad said, “This sword of ‘Abd Allah b. Unays
killed him. I can see the marks left by bones on it.”

Hassan b. Thabit composed a poem glorifying the
assassinations of Ka’b b. al-Ashraf and Sallam b. Abi
al-Huqyaq (Abu Rafi).

The murder of Abu Rafi is recorded in Sahih Bukhari in
Hadith 5.59.371

[Note: Some biographers mention that this murder took
place just prior to Muhammad’s invasion on Khaybar]

Chapter Six

‘Young man smile in the face of death, for you are on
your way to Heaven’---from a Manual of Terror

Terror Twenty-one

The Battle of Uhud, Led by Muhammad-March, 625CE

The Quraysh resolutely decided to avenge their defeat
at Badr II. The need for a decisive military victory
against the menacing Islam and its diehard Jihadists
became more urgent when Zayd b. Haritha plundered
their rich caravan that took the new alternative route
through Nejd (see terror 19, CH. 5). The Quraysh were
now convinced that nothing could protect their
lifeline (trade) from the pillage and terror of
Muhammad. They alerted the neighboring tribes and
sought to raise money to form a formidable military
operation against Muhammad. Through contributions from
different parts of Arabia they raised 250,000 Dirhams
(besides the 250,000 Dirhams paid as ransom to secure
the release of the Meccan prisoners from Muhammad) for
the impending military expedition to avenge their
defeat. They also concluded alliances with other
nearby Bedouin tribes. Besides this subscription from
various sources, they also decided to use the entire
profit from the caravan that escaped Badr II to use it
to combat the terrorism of Muhammad. This profit was
one thousand camels and fifty thousand Dinars (around
US$ 550,000 in all, using the conversion rate
mentioned earlier) in cash, a substantial amount of
money in those days. With such a handsome resource at
their disposal, the Quraysh had no difficulty in
organizing a formidable army of three thousand men,
seven hundred of them were armored warriors and two
hundred mounted cavalry, ready to fight the terror
perpetrated by Muhammad and his fanatic followers.
There was also a small band of fifty Medina citizens
under Abu Amir, the Christian monk, who went over to
Mecca after being disgusted at the enthusiastic
reception of Muhammad at Medina. Besides these
military personnel, a batch of fifteen Quraysh women
in camel litters also joined the military operation.
Their leader was Hind bt. Utbah, the wife of Abu
Sufyan Shakhr b. Harb. At Badr II she had lost her
father (Utba), uncle (Shaybah) and her son, Hanzala.
She was particularly interested in going for the blood
of Hamzah who had slain her father at Badr II. Now was
the time for her to quench her thirst for revenge. She
engaged an Abyssinian slave, Wahshi, possessing deadly
javelin skill and belonging to Jubayr b. Mut’im to
kill Hamza, promising Wahshi his freedom if he was
successful in his mission.

It was twelve months since the Badr II and it was the
month of Ramadan. The Quraysh remained steadfast in
their revenge for the defeat at Badr II. Now was the
time to put their threat into execution. They planned
a grand attack on Muhammad. Rumor of this grand plan
had been reaching Muhammad for some time through his
informers at Mecca. He even received an oracle from
Allah in 3:128 on this preparedness. This rumor was
confirmed when Muhammad received a sealed letter from
his uncle, al-Abbas while he (Muhammad) was at his
mosque at Quba, a short distance from the city of
Medina. A messenger from Mecca delivered the letter to
Muhammad. The letter contained the information that
the Quraysh, with three thousand soldiers were
planning an attack on Muhammad. He kept the content of
the letter a secret and immediately returned to Medina
to concur with his advisors there. However, the news
leaked out when the wife of Sa’d b Muadh, the Khazaraj
leader, overheard the conversation between him and
Muhammad. Soon, the news spread that an immediate
attack was coming from the Quraysh.

In Mecca, the Quraysh were now fully ready to set out
for a showdown with Muhammad. At last, near the end of
Ramadan, the Quraysh army started their march with
three thousand soldiers and with Abu Sufyan b. Harb as
their general. The other chiefs of the Quraysh clans
also accompanied the Meccan army.

After a march of ten or twelve days, the Meccan army,
taking the usual route by the shore, arrived at Dhul
Hulaifa, about five miles west of Medina. It is
reported that while at al-Abwa, Hind bt. Utbah, Abu
Sufyan’s wife suggested that they dig up the grave of
Muhammad’s mother, but the Quraysh refrained from
doing such a depraved act. It was Thursday morning,
and after halting here for a while, the Quraysh army
marched northward for a few miles, bypassing the city
of Medina; instead, they proceeded about three miles
further north and encamped at Uhud, a mountainous
region with some wide plain space for the camel’s
grazing. One may wonder why the Quraysh did not attack
central Medina; they could have easily done so with
much success and with plenty of booty. The reason is
that the Quraysh were not at all interested in any
sort of plunder or booty. In fact, they had no grudge
against the general population of Medina; they were
angry with only one person-their co-citizen, Muhammad,
who had taken refuge there. Soon after their arrival
at the plains of Uhud, the Meccans cut down the
luxuriant forest as feed for the horses and camels.
They also set loose the camels and horses to graze.
Then Friday came and it passed without any activity.

In Medina, Muhammad was kept appraised of Meccan
movements. A spy, Hobab ibn al Mundhir surveyed the
Quraysh camp on Thursday and brought back the alarming
estimate of the Quraysh army. Muhammad decided to keep
that information a secret. The next day, Friday,
Muhammad discussed with his people the course to be
pursued. He had a bad dream the previous night and
told the conclave of his Jihadists about the need of
protection of Medina and himself. Due to his bad dream
the previous night, a superstitious Muhammad was quite
reluctant to go for the battle. At first, it was
decided that the women and children of the suburbs and
surrounding hamlets should be brought within the city.
The enemy, if they approached should be met with
arrows, stones and other missiles from the housetops.
Abd Allah ibn Ubayy, Muhammad’s nemesis supported this
proposal of defending the city of Medina should the
Quraysh attacked it. But the young converts wanted to
go out and fight the enemy in the field, as they did
at Badr II. Young Jihadists who missed the Badr II and
its booty were more enthusiastic in going out to fight
the Quraysh. The picture of paradise hovered before
their eyes as martyrs in Allah’s cause was just as the
Quran had described it in 56:25-26. Hamza was adamant,
saying, “By Allah who has sent the Book down unto you,
I will not taste food till I fight them with my sword
outside Medina.” Many people supported this young
faction. In the end, Muhammad gave way to them,
commanding them to make ready for the battle.

After the afternoon prayer, the people assembled in
the court of the mosque armed for the battle. Muhammad
himself put on two armors, one on top of another. When
a few young Jihadists found that Muhammad had quite
reluctantly agreed to proceed for the battle, they
became repentant and wanted to abort the mission. On
this, Muhammad said, “It does not suit a Prophet that
once he had put on armor. He should take it off until
Allah has decided between him and the enemy.” Some
people hesitated but Muhammad kept going. Muhammad’s
child-bride, Aisha also volunteered to join the Jihad
and he allowed her. Aisha nursed the wounded, brought
water to the thirsty and rendered sundry services.

Then the Muslims fixed three banners on the three
lances. One for the refugees, carried by Musab b.
Umayr (some say, Ali), the second, to the leader of B.
Aws, Usayd ibn Hudayl, the third to a leader of B.
Khazraj, al-Hubab ibn al-Mundhir. Abdallah ibn Umm
Maktum was appointed to look after Medina city and to
lead the prayer in the absence of Muhammad. The Muslim
army consisted of one thousand men (one hundred of
them were armored), and two horses (one belonging to
Muhammad). Then Muhammad gave the orders for the march
northward to the plains of Uhud. The two Sa’ds (Sa’d
b. Muadh and Sa’d b. Ubadah) ran in front of the
Muslim battalion.

Muhammad marched until he reached al-Shaykhayn and saw
a well-equipped army waiting there. On enquiry, he
learned that they were polytheists and Jews who were
ready to join the Muslim army against the Meccans.
They were the allies of Abd Allah ibn Ubay. Muhammad
refused to accept them as his comrade, saying, “Do not
seek support of the polytheists against polytheists.”
Then he halted at al-Shaykhayn and reviewed his
forces, rejecting those who were disabled or too young
to fight. At nightfall, the Muslim army encamped there
and Muhammad spent the night there. Abd Allah ibn
Ubayy encamped nearby. He was displeased by the
unfriendly behavior of Muhammad to his Jewish
adherents. The Quraysh were also camped nearby. A
ridge separated the two armies.

In the morning the Muslim army started marching again
to Uhud. When they reached at a place called Ash Shawt
they could observe the Quraysh army in the distance.
It was at this place that Abd Allah ibn Ubayy rebelled
against Muhammad, withdrew his three hundred men from
the Muslim army and started departing for Medina thus
reducing the number of Jihadists to around seven
hundred men. Two other parties of Muhammad were also
influenced by Abd Allah ibn Ubayy. They were about to
join him (Abd Allah ibn Ubayy), but at the eleventh
hour, changed their minds and decided to remain with
Muhammad. As revealed in 3:122 Muhammad claimed this
change of heart to be Allah’s will. When Abd Allah ibn
Ubay departed, another band of Muhammad’s followers
went along with him, pleading Abd Allah ibn Ubayy to
fight for the cause of Allah. But ibn Ubayy was
adamant in returning to Medina, thus greatly
displeasing the pleading clan. Allah, in verse 3:187
cursed the hypocrisy of Abd Allah ibn Ubayy. So, now
Muhammad had to march alone with his seven hundred
followers. Although he was quite near to Uhud, and
could easily see the Quraysh encamped in the plains of
Uhud, he found that it would not be safe to follow the
main road to Uhud, because that would engage him to a
full frontal confrontation with the enemy. Muhammad
now sought the help of a local guide, Abu Khaitamah to
reach the Uhud Mountain bypassing the frontal
confrontation with the Quraysh. This guide took the
Muslim army through a track that required the
trespassing through farmland belonging to a blind man
named Marba b Qyizi. When the Jihadists wanted to pass
through this farmland without the permission of the
owner, the blind man protested by throwing dust on
them and saying, “You may be the apostle of God, but I
won’t let you through my garden. By God, Muhammad, if
I could be sure that I should not hit someone else I
would throw it in your face.” The Jihadists sought
Muhammad’s permission to cut to pieces this blind man.
Muhammad declined; but it was too late. A diehard
Jihadist had already hit the blind man on his head
with his sword that cut his head in to two pieces.
Such was the mercy of Allah’s soldiers!

Upon their arrival at Uhud, the Muslims camped at the
base of the mountain and arranged their rank to face
the Quraysh. Muhammad dispatched fifty archers to the
hill of Aynayan that was opposite to the main Uhud
mountain range to guard the rear of the Muslim army.
He appointed Abd Allah ibn Jubayr as their leader and
gave strict order to not to leave their position under
any circumstances, whether victory or defeat, until
they received the command from him. He issued further
orders to not to engage the enemy until he gave
instructions. Muhammad himself took up a position at
an elevated place with plenty of arrows to shoot at
the enemy. Sahih Bukhari states that Some Jihadists
drank wine to imbue them further in Jihad. Here is the
Sahih Hadith:

Volume 6, Book 60, Number 142:

Narrated Jabir:

   Some people drank alcoholic beverages in the
morning (of the day) of the Uhud battle and on
the same day they were killed as martyrs, and
that was before wine was prohibited.

Muhammad exhorted the Jihadists to a frenzied spirit
of war; gave his sword to one cavalier, Abu Dujana who
was famous for his savagery and fanatic killing
instinct. Then Muhammad sat down and began casting
arrows. He was protected by a band of Jihadists who
ensured that any attack from behind would be repulsed
immediately. However, his elite core of companions
(like Abu Bakr, Ali, Hamzah, Umar and others) were
dispatched to lead the Muslim soldiers for a fierce
combat. Muhammad then waited for enemy’s approach. At
this time, Abu Sufyan b. Harb, the leader of the
Quraysh army brought his army, and facing Uhud,
marshaled them in front of Muhammad. Khalid b.
al-Walid commanded the right wing, while Ikrimah b.
Abu Jahl commanded the left wing, with Abu Sufyan in
command of the middle front. The women, at first, kept
to the front sounding their tumbrels and martial
verses; but as the line advanced, they fell to the
rear.

The Meccan banner was borne by Talha ibn Abi Talhah.
He belonged to the Quryash clan of Abdud Dar whose
duty it was to carry the banner of the Quraysh during
war. It was Saturday, Shawwal 7, AH3 corresponding to
March 23, 625. The two armies were now poised to
ignite the fire.

Before the battle started, Abu Sufyan sent a message
of peace to the men of al-Aws and al-Khazaraj, asking
them to leave the matter of battle among the cousins
(i.e., among the Quraysh) only. He did not want to
have a war with al-Aws and al-Khazraj. But al-Aws and
al-Khazraj turned down his peace offer. Thus, a
ferocious showdown became inevitable.

The first person from the Quraysh to start the single
combat was Abu Amir (Muhammad used to call him
al-Fasiq-the evildoer) with a party of fifty of his
people. They exchanged stone-throwing with the
Muslims. This continued till the Muslims gained an
upper hand, and Abu Amir and his companions turned
back To keep the fervor of fighting spirit intact, the
Quraysh women came out marching, beating cymbals,
drums and tambourines and singing patriotic songs. In
the next stage of fighting, it was mainly single
combat, following the Arab customary start of a
battle. Talha ibn Abu Talhah strode forward with the
Quraysh standard; Az- Zubair b. al-Awwam (some say Ali
ibn Talib) met him and killed him. On hearing the
death of the first standard bearer of the Quraysh,
Muhammad rejoiced with Takbir (Allahu Akbar) and said,
“Every Prophet has a disciple and my disciple is Az
Zubair,” thus guaranteeing Az Zubair a place in
paradise, whether alive or dead in the Jihad.

After the death of Talhah, his brother Abu Shaybah
Uthman b. Abi Talhah took over the Quraysh standard
reciting enticing verses. Hamzah attacked him with his
sword, cutting his hand and shoulder and exposing his
lung. Soon Abu Shaybah Uthman was killed. Then, his
brother, Abu Sa’d b. Abi Talhah took over the Quraysh
flag and Asim b. Thabit killed him. In this way, seven
members from the same family were killed. They were:
Talhah, his brothers, Shaybah and Abu Sa’d; Talha’s
four sons, viz. Musafi, Al-Harith, Kilab and Julas.
When Musafi’s mother learnt the killing of her two
sons in the hands of Asim b. Thabit she vowed to
avenge their death by drinking wine from Asim’s skull.

The slaughter continued and the Quraysh grew
desperate. When all the brave brothers and sons of
Talhah were slain, Artat Shurahbil raised the flag of
the Quarysh and an unknown Jihadist killed him. The
Quraysh standard then went to the hand of Shurayh b.
Qariz and then to his slave Su’ab; the Muslims killed
both of them. Thus, ten Quraysh laid down their lives
to keep the Quraysh standard aloft. The Quraysh flag
lay on the ground with no one to raise it. The front
line of the Quraysh was now broken; panic and terror
struck their minds and they took to the flight. They
realized that it was a mistake on their part to engage
the Muslims in single combat. However, it was too
late. Hanzala b. Abu Amir (the Christian monk’s Muslim
son) dueled with Abu Sufyan and was about to kill him
when Shaddad b. al-Aswad struck Hanzala b. Amir and
killed him. This was what Abu Sufyan b. Harb later
recalled in a poetic verse as ‘Hanzala for Hanzala.’
(Remember? Abu Sufyan’s son Hanzala was killed by the
Muslims at Badr II).

As soon as the Quraysh realized their folly in
engaging the Muslim Jihadists in single combat they
launched a general engagement. In the beginning, with
the fierce attack from the Muslims, the Quraysh began
to waver. Each time they moved forward, the archers,
protecting the rear of the Muslim army in the
neighboring hillock pushed them back. The Meccan army
was about to lose heart. Abu Dujana, with the sword
given by Muhammad, Hamza and Ali fought valiantly.
They killed a number of Quraysh unbelievers. The
Quraysh, became desperate and started to flee the
battle leaving their standard lying on the ground and
no one to carry it. Thus ended the first phase of the
Uhud battle.

The Muslim army, sensing the nervousness of the
Quraysh, without any delay, started collecting booty.
Their cupidity for booty was so intense that when the
Muslim archers saw from the hilltop afar their
compatriots engaged in plunder, they simply deserted
their positions and joined in the rush for the loot.
Only ten archers, with their leader Abd Allah ibn
Jubayr remained in their position as directed by
Muhammad. The rest could not care less about
Muhammad’s instruction; booty became their supreme
goal. Here is a summary of what Tabari wrote about the
Jihadists desire for booty:

When the Jihadists, guarding the rear of Muslim
soldiers saw the Quraysh and their women fleeing and
saw the booty they became hungry for spoils and said,
“Let us go to the Messenger of God and get the booty
before the others beat us to it.” Another group wanted
to obey the order of Muhammad and leave their
positions. On this altercation between the two groups
God revealed, “Whoso desireth….the Hereafter (3:145).

Witnessing the greed for booty, Ibn Masud said, “I
never realized that any of the Prophet’s companions
desired the world and its goods until that day.”

This uncontrolled greed for booty by the Jihadists
provided Khaild b. Walid, the commander of the Quraysh
cavalry to charge the booty-drunken Muslims from
behind and to change the tide of war. He soon made a
vicious attack on the remaining archers, killing all
of them, including their leader Abd Allah ibn Jubayr.
Khalid b. Walid was followed by Ikrimah b Abu Hakam
(Abu Jahl’s son; Abu Jahl was brutally murdered in
Badr II). It is claimed that the angels were present
but they did not fight for the Muslims. It is it clear
why the angels were reluctant to help the soldiers of
Allah. When the Muslim ranks were broken and forced
back, Muhammad tried to resume the flight. He gave a
call to continue fighting in the name of the apostle
of Allah. But his call remained largely unheeded and
the retreat continued unabated. The enemy soon came
closer to Muhammad. A party of diehard devotees then
rallied around his person. It was impossible for
Muhammad to escape. While this confusion was raging, a
rumor, that Muhammad had been killed, broke the
backbone of the Muslim army. Muhammad’s biographers
often provide conflicting and confusing account of
this episode of the Uhud battle. Here is what I
understood after consulting a few versions of this
story:

Watching the quick change of fortune in the war front
and the Muslim’s disunity, the Quraysh soon regained
their spirit and returned to fight. A Quraysh woman,
Umrah bt. Alqamah Al-Harithya lifted the lying
standard on the ground. This time, the Quraysh had a
decisive upper hand in the fight. They gathered
together and started searching for Muhammad.

A band of Quraysh army, after killing the archers,
pursued Muhammad and his bodyguards. At that time most
of the Jihadists were busying themselves with the
plunder. Only a small group of nine Jihadists were
protecting Muhammad, seven of them were Ansars
(helpers) and two were Muhajirs (immigrants). A part
of Khalid’s army, led by ibn Qamia started hurling
stones at this little group protecting Muhammad. One
of these stones hit Muhammad’s mouth injuring his
lower right incisor and rupturing his lower lip.
Another sword-attack from Utbah b. Abi Waqqas (the
brother of Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas, a Muslim), a Quraysh
injured his forehead and shoulder causing severe
bleeding.

The Meccans attack on the Muslims from behind put them
to flight. They (the Meccans) killed many Muslims.
Some Muslims were gravely wounded; many started to
flee the battle. With a wounded person and a wounded
heart Muhammad called on his followers to fight on,
but no one was listening to him. Then Allah sent the
oracle in verse 3:128, “It is no concern at all of
thee (Muhammad), whether He relent toward them or
punish them: for they are evildoers.” A helpless
Muhammad then cried out, “Who will sell his life for
us?” Hearing his desperate call, Ziyad b. al-Sakani
(or Umarah b. Ziyad al-Sakani), along with other five
Jihadists, came forward to protect Muhammad. They were
killed one after another in front of him until only
Ziyad b. al-Sakani was left.

It is reported that Hatib b. Baltah followed Utbah b.
Abi Waqqas and killed him, although it was the great
desire of Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas to kill his own brother
(Utbah). While the attack on Muhammad was not mortal
(because Muhammad was wearing a double coat of arms),
the blow was so heavy that it caused the two rings in
his helmet to penetrate his cheeks. An injured
Muhammad vehemently cursed the perpetrators. Initially
those bodyguards fought with supreme bravery to
protect Muhammad. But the Quraysh continued their
foray of relentless attack on them-so much so, that
they killed the seven ansars in no time. Only the two
Muhajirs, namely, Talhah b. Ubaidullah and Sa’d b. Abi
Waqqas, now protected Muhammad. In the short melee
that ensued, the Quraysh seriously injured Talhah b.
Ubaidullah. The standard bearer of the Muslims, Musab
b. Umayr was nearby. It happened that he resembled
Muhammad in his appearance. Ibn Qamiah attacked him
and killed him. Thinking that he had killed Muhammad,
he started shouting at the top of his voice, “Muhammad
has been killed.” Hearing this terrible news, the
Muslim’s rank fell in disorder; confusion raged and
they started fighting each other. One such victim of
this internecine was the father of Hudhayfa, Al-Yaman.
When he saw his father about to be killed by another
Muslim, he cried out, but to no avail. Hudhayfah later
forgave his father’s killer and did not demand any
blood money for the killing of his father. Many
Muslims fled the battlefield and headed towards
Medina. Some of them took their comrades’ corpses for
burial at Medina. Some Muslims even tried to contact
Abd Allah ibn Ubayy to strike a deal with the Quraysh,
so that they would not be killed by them. But this
attempt failed. Finding his position to be untenable
and extremely vulnerable from further attack, Muhammad
began to run for his life. A Jihadist, Ka’b b. Malik
saw a fleeing Muhammad and rejoiced, crying loudly,
“Allah’s messenger is alive.” An unnerved Muhammad
asked Ka’b to keep his mouth shut; but the Quraysh had
already heard that their bitterest enemy was still
alive. One Quraysh, Ubay b. Khalaf rode to Muhammad in
order to kill him. Muhammad took a spear from one of
his companions and hurled it at Ubay b. Khalaf
injuring him. Ubayy went back to the Quraysh with the
injury in his throat and neck and said, “By God,
Muhammad has killed me.” The Quraysh found nothing so
seriously wrong with Ubayy. But Ubayy insisted that
Muhammad’s curse had afflicted him. Ubayy b. Khalaf
died of his wound at Sarif while returning to Mecca.
It is stated that when the Quraysh saw Ubay b.
Khalaf’s wound and told him that it was not very
serious he refused to believe it, insisting that
Muhammad had previously cursed him to death and as
such he would surely die. While there is no
evidence/record to suggest that Muhammad had killed
any one with his own hand, Ibn Sa’d writes, “Ubayyi
Ibn Khalaf al-Jumahi, whom the apostle of Allah, may
Allah bless him, slew with his own hand……” .

While running in a hurry to save his own life,
Muhammad fell into a ditch (some kind of booby-trap)
that Abu Amir, the Christian monk had previously dug
to trap Muslim soldiers. Now, hearing the joyful shout
of Ka’b, about thirty of the Jihadists, including
Muhammad’s hardcore companions like Abu Bakr, Ali,
Umar etc. started approaching him. When they came near
the ditch where Muhammad had fallen, they were greatly
relieved to find him alive. Muhammad asked them not to
make much noise but to proceed north and take
sanctuary at one of the caves in the hillock. Ali put
forth his hand towards Muhammad and lifted him up from
the ditch. With a live Muhammad with them, his
companions then started to proceed stealthily towards
the hillock to take shelter there, to execute a
planned withdrawal of the Muslim army and, most
importantly, provide medical attention to Muhammad and
his injured companions. It is reported that Aisha and
a few other Muslimah joined Muhammad’s team. Fatima
(Muhammad’s daughter) arrived at the scene of the
battle and helped to dress the wound of her father. It
took about a month for Muhammad’s wound to heal.

Hamza’s sister, Safiya also came up. She was fondly
attached to Hamza, her brother.

The battle of Uhud also demonstrates the use of
extreme vituperative and vulgar language, mostly by
the Muslims. Here is a sample:

While such a grave predicament afflicted the Muslims,
Hamzah was fighting gallantly killing a few Quraysh.
The Abissiniyan slave, Wahsi (Remember? he was hired
by Hind bt. Utbah to kill Hamzah) was watching him
close by and took up a strategic position aiming his
deadly spear at Hamzah. At this moment, Siba b. Abd
al-Uzza al-Ghubshani (Abu Niyar) passed by Hamzah. Abu
Niyar was the son of a female circumciser, Umm Ammar,
a freed slave of Shariq b. Amr b. Wahb al-Thaqafi. So,
Hamzah yelled at him, “Come over here, you son of a
cutter-of clitorises.” When, Wahsi, the slave of
Jubayr b. Mutim saw Hamzah yelling at Abu Niyar, he
(Wahsi) swiftly hurled his javelin at Hamzah that
struck him before he could strike Abu Niyar. The
javelin struck Hamzah in the lower part of the belly
and came out between his legs. Hamzah died quickly and
Wahsi recovered his javelin and returned to his camp,
thus fulfilling his commitment of killing Hamzah.
Hamzah’s body lay dead on the ground.

Thus, we note that FGM (Female Genital Mutilation) was
quite prevalent among the Arabs in the days of
Muhammad. Muhammad did not put any ban on this
practice of mutilating female private organs.

As mentioned previously, after Muhammad was pulled up
from the ditch, Abu Bakr, Umar, Ali and his other
companions carried him to a cave nearby to provide
medical attention and nursing. A Jihadist pulled out
the ring that had penetrated inside Muhammad’s cheek,
and while performing this primitive ‘surgery’, he
broke Muhammad’s already injured incisor. Blood was
oozing out from Muhammad’s wound in his face. Malik b.
Sinan sucked out the blood and drank it. On this,
Muhammad said, “He whose blood mingles with mine will
not be touched by the fire of hell.” Abu Bakr, Umar,
Ali and his other inner core of companions started
comforting an injured Muhammad and the gravely wounded
Talhah b. Ubaidullah. To those who spread the rumor of
Muhammad’s death, Allah revealed the verse 3:144,
“Muhammad is but a messenger, messengers (the like of
whom) have passed away before him. Will it be that,
when he dieth or is slain, ye will turn back on your
heels! He who turneth back doth no hurt to Allah, and
Allah will reward the thankful.”

The Jihadists surrounding Muhammad became very tired
and many of them fell asleep in the cave. In a short
time, the Muslims finally retreated from the battle
and took cover in the mountains of Uhud.

Meanwhile, after the Quraysh sensed that the Muslims
had been defeated and they (the Muslims) had retreated
to the mountainside, they came out in full force, many
of them inspecting their fallen foes. This way,
mid-day passed. After the mid-day, the Quraysh started
looking for the body of Muhammad, and not finding it
doubted his death. Some of them engaged in mutilating
the Muslim corpses. They cut off the ears and noses
(even genitalia) of their victims and made necklaces
from them. Hind bt Utbah became so obsessed with
revenge that she not only wore some such necklaces and
anklets but also proceeded to mutilate Hamzah’s
corpse. She tore apart his stomach, took out the liver
and chewed it but finding that not so palatable spat
it out. Abu Sufyan denounced such a savage act of
Hind.

Then Abu Sufyan came very near to the snuggery where
Muhammad and his companions were sheltered and
enquired about who were inside the cave. No one
replied back to him. At this, Abu Sufyan hubristically
announced that the Quraysh had slain all the nobles of
the Muslims, including Muhammad. Unable to bear such
humiliation and insult, an angry Umar retorted back
that all of them were alive, safe and sound including
Muhammad. Though a little surprised, Abu Sufyan was
reluctant to continue with further bloodshed and
informed Umar that some Quraysh had indulged
themselves in mutilating the Muslim corpses which he
neither ordered nor disliked. He was satisfied that
the death of his son Hanzalah b. Abu Sufyan in BadrII
had been avenged. Abu Sufyan then issued a challenge
to meet Muhammad again, next year at Badr. Muhammad
accepted the challenge. After exalting Hubal (the
biggest idol in Ka’ba) and Uzza (another idol at
Nakha) for the victory, Abu Sufyan gave order to his
soldiers to pack up and march for Mecca. At this, a
defiant Muhammad proclaimed that Allah is the
protector of the Jihadists.

Once Abu Sufyan was far off from the Muslim’s
sanctuary, Muhammad instructed Ali to observe the
departure of the Quraysh army. Ali reported back that
the Quraysh rode their camels and led their horses.
This news relieved Muhammad, because it was a sure
sign that the Quraysh had, indeed, departed for Mecca
and had no intention of returning to Uhud/Medina.
Being reassured of no further attack from the Quraysh,
Muhammad ordered his comrades to come out of their
hideout. Thus the Muslims, once again, returned to the
battlefield that was now strewn with the corpses of
the Jihadists. It was a horrible sight, no doubt, and
when Muhammad saw the mutilated body of Hamzah who was
his uncle and foster brother, he was gravely saddened
and started to weep. The sight of Hamzah’s corpse was
so grotesque that Muhammad prevented his (Muhammad’s)
aunt, Saffiya to visit her brother’s (Hamzah) dead
body. But Saffiya refused and came and looked at the
macabre scene of his brother lying on the ground with
parts of his body missing or in tatter. But she was
calm, composed, and supplicated Allah for the
forgiveness of Hamzah. Muhammad ordered that Hamzah be
buried with Abdullah ibn Jahsh, who was his (Hamzah’s)
nephew. Subsequently, Hamzah was buried where he fell
dead. Muhammad then vowed to take revenge by
mutilating thirty Quraysh bodies for Hamza. Some say
that he vowed for seventy. However, this mutilation
practice was banned by a later revelation (16:126) in
the Qur’an. Consequently, Muhammad banned the
mutilation of dead bodies but announced: “A wounded
Jihadi will be raised on the resurrection day with
blood dripping from his wounds and the smell of the
wound will be the smell of musk” In addition to this,
he also said: “God put the spirits of those killed in
the Uhud in the crops of green birds and the Jihadists
would like to come back from heaven and be killed
again, again and again.”

A similar Hadith is narrated in Sunaan Abu Dawud:

Book 14, Number 2514:

Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas:

   The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: When
your brethren were smitten at the battle of
Uhud, Allah put their spirits in the crops of
green birds which go down to the rivers of
Paradise, eat its fruit and nestle in lamps of
gold in the shade of the Throne. Then when
they experienced the sweetness of their food,
drink and rest, they asked: Who will tell our
brethren about us that we are alive in
Paradise provided with provision, in order
that they might not be disinterested in jihad
and recoil in war? Allah Most High said: I
shall tell them about you; so Allah sent down;
"And do not consider those who have been
killed in Allah's path." till the end of the
verse.

After burying their dead comrades, the Muslims, along
with Muhammad, returned to Medina. While on his way to
Medina, many people, especially women were extremely
eager to learn about the fate of their dear and near
ones. Muhammad had no choice but to tell them the
heart-wrenching news of the death of their relations.
When he passed by a settlement of Ansars, Muhammad
heard the wailing of women for their dear ones. He
himself wept but found no women to weep for Hamzah.
When Sa’d b. Muadh heard of this, he ordered his women
folks to weep for Hamzah, the uncle of Muhammad.

In the evening of that day (Saturday, 7th of Shawal),
Muhammad, along with the Muslim army returned to
Medina. When Muhammad entered his family home he and
Ali gave their swords to Fatima (Muhammad’s daughter
and Ali’s wife) to wash off the blood from them.

It is reported that seventy Muslims were killed at the
battle of Uhud. The Quraysh lost twenty-three men.

There were a few accidental killing of Muslims by
themselves. For instance, it was already mentioned
that Husayl b. Jabir al-Yaman was killed by Muslims
who could not recognize him. Muhammad paid his son
Hudhayfah the blood money. Hudhayfah donated that
money to the needy Muslims.

Hatib’s son Yazid was gravely injured and was
comforted by other Muslims, for paradise was promised
to a martyr. At this, Hatib was agitated and blamed
the Muslims for misleading his son to death.

Another Muslim, Quzaman, fought valiantly, killing
eight or nine polytheists and then was gravely
injured. When people congratulated him for his valor,
he simply expressed his great desire to fight for the
honor of his own people. When the pain from his wound
became very severe he committed suicide by slitting
his wrist with an arrow. Muhammad was quite
dissatisfied with Quzman, because he fought and died
for National cause rather than Allah and his apostle’s
causes. When Muhammad’s followers enquired about
Quzman’s standing in the life hereafter, Muhammad
replied, “He is an inhabitant of fire.”

A Jew, Mukhayriq was also killed in Uhud. He fought
for the Muslims and exhorted other Jews to fight
alongside Muhammad. But most Jews did not join the
battle on the plea of the Sabbath day. As his
testimony, Muhammad called Mukhyaraq the best of Jews.
Sahi Bukhari records that Muhammad’s wife, Aisha, and
another woman, Umm Sulaim, (it is not clear if she was
Muhammad’s wife or not), served water to the Muslim
fighters in Uhud. Here is the Hadith:

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 131:

Narrated Anas:

   On the day (of the battle) of Uhad when (some)
people retreated and left the Prophet, I saw
'Aisha bint Abu Bakr and Um Sulaim, with their
robes tucked up so that the bangles around
their ankles were visible hurrying with their
water skins (in another narration it is said,
"carrying the water skins on their backs").
Then they would pour the water in the mouths
of the people, and return to fill the water
skins again and came back again to pour water
in the mouths of the people.

On the night of their return from Uhud, the Muslim
army kept a sharp vigil on the city of Medina to
prevent any intrusion from the Quraysh. Muhammad had a
rather nightmarish night. For the whole of the night
he thought over what had happened and what the future
holds for him and his hordes of followers. The defeat
at Uhud was an extremely painful blow to him and his
credibility as the messenger of Allah was now at
stake-Muhammad was quick to understand this. He needed
to be calm, cool, and collected, and must decide on a
course of action to restore his lost credibility and
the awe at which his followers looked at him. To them,
he was invincible and next to Allah-nothing can be
further from this truth. Muhammad vowed that he must
not lose this magical and hypnotic mob-power on his
Jihadist followers. At the same time he was also
alarmed that the Quraysh army might return and inflict
a sudden attack on Medina. The only choice for him was
to go out, look for the whereabouts of the Quraysh
army and scare (terrorize) them, somehow or other. He
must cast terror on their hearts by whatever means he
could muster-he knew this truth very well.

Chapter Seven

‘We have to pay a tax to go to Paradise’---Ramzi
Binalshibh

Terror Twenty-two

The Invasion of Hamra al-Aswad by Muhammad-March,
624CE

As stated earlier, Muhammad was deeply perturbed at
the defeat of Muslims at Uhud; therefore, to salvage
Muslim morale as well as to instil fear in the hearts
of the Jews and the hypocrites, he planned a few
attacks against the enemy in order to offset the
ignominy of the rout at Uhud,

So Sunday the 8th of Shawaal, AH3 (March 24, 625), the
next day after Uhud, when the Muslims woke up, they
heard that Muhammad had called them to join him in the
pursuit of the returning Quraysh army. He gave a
general order of mobilization of the troops, but with
the condition that only those who had participated in
the Uhud battle the previous day were eligible to join
in the new operation. Undoubtedly, he did this to
elevate the spirit of the Jihadists, to remove the
impression of their disgraceful defeat at Uhud and to
boost the morale of his demoralized soldiers. One
Muslim, who missed out the Uhud battle because of his
father’s reluctance to let him fight in the Jihad was
allowed to join the Muslim army. The son of a martyred
Jihadist sought Muhammad’s permission to join in this
expedition; he was also allowed in.

Besides them, several wounded Jhadists also joined
this march.

A little before Muhammad set out in the pursuit of the
departing Meccan army, he sent three spies, all
belonging to B. Aslam to track the footprint of the
departing Meccan army. Two of them met the Meccan army
at Hamra al-Asad, about eight (or ten, as per ibn
S’ad) miles from Medina. Abu Sufyan had already come
to learn about Muhammad’s venture to pursue the
Meccans. The two spies heard the discussion among the
Quraysh: whether they should go back and finish off
the Muslims once and for all or to continue their
journey to Mecca. Abu Sufyan was in favor of
inflicting a deciding blow to the Muslims, but on the
counseling of Safwan ibn Umayyah, he decided against
it and, instead, proceeded towards Mecca. It happened
just a day before the Muslim Jihadists arrived at
Hamra al-Asad. Prior to their departure from Hamra
al-Asad, the Quraysh spotted the two Muslim spies,
caught them and killed them, leaving their corpses on
the road. Nothing is known about the whereabouts of
the third Muslim sleuth. Presumably, he fled and
returned to Muhammad.

The Jihadists, under the leadership of a bandaged
Muhammad, went up to Hamra al-Asad, and found the two
dead bodies of the spies that Muhammad had sent for
intelligence on the Quraysh. Once Muhammad learned
that the Quraysh were not there to attack him further,
he felt elated and decided to spend three nights (or
five, according to ibn Sa’d)-- until Wednesday, (March
25-27, 625) before returning to Medina. While
recuperating at Hamra al-Asad from his battle wound
suffered at Uhud, he ordered five hundred fires
kindled on the adjoining heights, simply to send the
Quraysh the strong message of his strength.

Further, while Muhammad was at Hamra al-Asad, he made
an agreement with Mabad al-Khuzaah at Tihamah. Both
the Muslims and the polytheists of Tihamah were
trusted allies of Muhammad. They made a compact with
Muhammad to not to conceal anything from him.

Then, Mabad went to Mecca; met with Abu Sufyan and
talked falsely that Muhammad had gathered a great
force to fight Abu Sufyan. At that time Abu Sufyan and
his companions were planning a massive and decisive
attack on Medina to finish off the Muslims once and
for all. Hearing Mabad’s vein talk of a great military
strength of Muhammad, Abu Sufyan retreated from his
plan of an immediate attack on the Muslims. Thus,
Muhammad, once again, proved that the use of terror
and deceit do indeed work for his cause.

After the demonstration of his mettle at Hamra
al-Asad, Muhammad returned to Medina. One Quraysh
soldier was loitering at Hamra al-Asad. He was the
poet Abu Azzah al-Jumahi, a poor man with five
daughters. He had just missed the Quraysh party.
Previously, he was one of the prisoners of Badr II. As
he was an indigent, having no means to pay ransom, he
pleaded for his freedom. Muhammad released him freely
on the condition that he would not take up arms
against Muslims again. However, he was tempted by the
Meccans to fight with the promise of a great reward of
a win; or the maintenance of his five daughters in
case of his being killed. After the Uhud battle when
the Muslims caught this hapless destitute, he begged
mercy from Muhammad, but Muhammad was not to be moved
by pity or compassion; he ordered Abu Azzah’s killing,
as he had broken his promise. Hazrat Ali personally
killed him.

Another Quraysh, while returning to Mecca lost his way
and passed the night near Medina. Next morning, he
went to the house of Uthman ibn Affan (Muhammad’s
son-in law). Uthman procured for him, a grace period
of three days, arranged a camel and provisions for his
return journey to Mecca. Having made such arrangement,
Uthman departed with Muhammad for Hamra-al-Asad. The
unlucky Quraysh tarried and stayed in Medina until the
last day of his term of grace. Muhammad, hearing about
his delay by just one day, caught him and put him to
death.

Al-Harith b. Suwayd was a hypocrite. He went to Uhud
with Muslims but killed some Muslims. Then he fled to
Mecca, to the Quraysh. After that, al-Harith sent his
brother to Muhammad for his forgiveness, so that he
could return to Medina. Muhammad allowed his return,
but was undecided about his fate, preferring to make a
decision after returning from Hamra al-Asad. On his
hesitation Allah quickly sent the verse 3:86
indicating that those who reject faith after accepting
it should be put to death

So, after returning to Medina, Muhammad ordered the
execution of al-Harith b. Suwayd for the suspected
murder of al- Mujaddzir of B. Aws. This incident
(i.e., the alleged and unproven murder of
al-Mujaddzir) happened nine or ten years ago. Muhammad
gave order to Uthman b Affan , his son-in-law to cut
off the head of al-Harith.

Hazrat Uthman beheaded al-Harith at the gate of the
mosque, right in front of Muhammad.

The success at Badr II was seen as a proof of
Muhammad’s divine claim. Now, the defeat at Uhud was
subversive to his prophetic claims. The Jews started
broadcasting this argument. Muhammad was now deeply
concerned to regain his reputation and to
re-invigorate his followers. He started to preach that
the defeat at Uhud was due to the hypocrites. He
claimed that Allah, in the oracle of Sura 3 told this
truth to him. Then he proceeded to sift the true
believers from the hypocrites by blaming those who
stayed at home and did not join the Jihad at Uhud.
Arguing that even if he died, his cause remained, he
promised future success to his believers if they
remained steadfast and be courageous. The cause itself
was immortal and divine-- he was absolutely adamant.
This exhortation had its intended effect on the true
Jihadists, and they were now reassured. He was
satisfied that he could really make his gullible
believers accept any postulation that he fancied them
to accept as true.

Terror Twenty-three

The Plunder of B. Asad ibn Khuzaymah at Katan in Nejd
by Abu Salma b. Abd al Asad al-Makhzumi -April, 625CE

Bani Asad ibn Khuzaymah, the resident of Katan, in the
vicinity of Fayd, where there was a spring, was a
powerful tribe connected with the Quraysh. They
resided near the hill of Katan in the Nejd. Muhammad,
purportedly, received intelligence reports that they
were planning a raid on Medina. So, he dispatched a
force of one hundred men under the leadership of Abu
Salma b. Abd al Asad al-Makhzumi to make a sudden
attack on this tribe. On the first day of Muharram,
while they were completely unprepared, Abd al-Asad,
perpetrated an unprovoked terror raid on them and took
their booty.

However, this terror operation was not a huge success.
When the Jihadists arrived at the site, the victims
fled and the Muslims found three herdsmen with a large
herd of camels and goats. They took the camels and
goats as booty, and the three herdsmen as prisoners.
Then the booty, along with the three captives was
brought to Medina. Muhammad took one of the prisoners
(presumably as a slave) for himself, distributed the
camels and cattle among the Jihadists keeping his due
share of the plunder. This success in plunder restored
some of the Muslim prestige that had been lost at
Uhud. Abu Salamah did not live long after this raid
due to the inflammation of the wound he received at
Uhud.

In this connection it may be appropriate to mention
that, as per Islamic rule on plunder, all the
immovable booty must be taken out and removed from the
site of plunder. It s unlawful, according to Islamic
rule, not to take possession of infidel wealth after a
successful plunder. On the rule on Ghanimah,
(plunder), the Dictionary of Islam writes, “If the
Imam, or the leader of the Muslim army, conquer a
country by force of arms, he is at liberty to leave
the land in possession of the original proprietors,
provided they pay tribute, or he may divide it amongst
the Muslims; but with regard to moveable property, it
is unlawful for him to leave it in possession of the
infidels, but he must bring it away with the army and
divide it amongst the soldiers.”

Terror Twenty-four

The Assassination of Sufyan ibn Khalid, the B. Lihyan
Chief at Urana (the first attack on B. Lihyan) by Abd
Allah b. Unays-April, 625CE

B. Lihyan, a branch of the powerful tribe of Hudhayl
(a section of the Quraysh), inhabited the vicinity of
Mecca. When the terrors of Muhammad’s Jihadists became
unbearable, they rallied around their chief, Khalid
ibn Sufyan al-Hudhayli at Urana to follow up the late
victory at Uhud.

Four days after the plunder at Katan (i.e., on the
fifth day of Muharram) Muhammad learned that Sufyan b
Khalid (or Khalid b. Sufyan, there is controversy on
this) was collecting people at Nakhla to make an
attack on him. So, he called Abdullah b. Unays to go
to Nakhla or Urana on a mission to kill ibn Khalid.
When Abdullah b. Unays wanted a description of his
victim, Muhammad replied, “When you will see him, you
will be frightened and bewildered and you will recall
Satan.” Abd Allah b. Unays said that he was not afraid
of ibn Khalid; but to assassinate him, he (Abd Allah)
would have to resort to lies and deceit. He sought
Muhammad’s permission to tell lies, and to commit the
act of deception. Muhammad unhesitatingly permitted
him to do so. Abd Allah b. Unays prayed to Allah
before going on this murder mission. He spent almost
eighteen days to find a way to infiltrate ibn Khalid’s
newly recruited army. Then he found ibn Khalid in a
halting place. When he met him, he bowed his head,
pretending to be a respectful follower of ibn Khalid.
When ibn Khalid asked about Abd Allah’s identity, Abd
Allah said that he was an Arab and wanted to join as a
volunteer in ibn Khalid’s force against Muhammad.
Sufyan b. Khalid trusted him and provided him with
shelter. Then, once, while conversing, Abd Allah b.
Unays walked a short distance with ibn Khalid, and
when an opportunity came he struck him with his sword
and killed him. After killing ibn Khalid, he cut off
his head, brought that to Muhammad, and while he
(Muhammad) was at his mosque, threw the head of ibn
Khalid at Muhammad’s feet. When he told Muhammad the
details of his act of assassination, Muhammad praised
him and gave him, as his reward, a stick as a sign
between him and Abd Allah on the resurrection day. Abd
Allah fastened the stick with his sword, and it
remained with him until his death. When he died, the
stick was buried with him.

This assassination had the effect of silencing the
Banu Lihyan, for some time. But another branch of
B.Lihyan wanted to take revenge of the murder of their
leader Sufyan ibn Khalid.

Terror Twenty-five

The Mishap at al-Rajii-May or July, 625CE

This is an important episode in the early history of
Islam. In this episode of terror and murder we have a
clear glimpse of a terribly violent society of the
savage Bedouin Arabs. Spilling blood was almost a
routine affair in that barbaric culture, no matter who
initiated it or who was in the wrong or right. As you
read this chilling episode of ‘peaceful’ Islam, recall
the seemingly unstoppable violence that is perpetrated
around the globe by the Islamic Jihadists. There are
several versions of this story-making it difficult to
ascertain its verity. Here is the version that I
compiled, mainly from the version of Tabari and Ibn
Ishaq. Variations are indicated with appropriate
references.

Immediately after the Uhud battle, a group of men from
Adal and al-Qarah came to Muhammad; requested him to
send with them a few instructors to teach Islam to
their people who had embraced Islam. Muhammad readily
agreed to this, and promptly sent six men (or ten men
as per Ibn Sa’d) with them. In reality, those
emissaries were sent by the B. Lihyan people who
wanted to avenge the killing of their chief, Sufyan b.
Khalid al-Hudhayli (refer to Terror 24). Those
emissaries were paid agents of B. Lihyan. Among the
six teachers of Islam selected by Muhammad was Asim b.
Thabit, the brother of B. Amr b. Awf; Marthad b. Abi
Marthad (or Asim b. Thabit as per Ibn Sa’d) was
appointed the head of this delegation.

When the Muslim party arrived at al-Raji, the
delegation took rest for the night. The Adal and
Qarah, in connivance with the Hudhayl, the owner of
the watering place, made a completely surprise attack
with swords on the six Muslims to extract money from
them. They promised not to kill them, but to derive
money as ransom. However, the Muslims refused to
believe the promise of the polytheists and fought
back. All the Muslims, except Zayd b. al-Dathinnah,
Khubyab b. Adi and Abd Allah b. Tariq were killed.
These three Muslims surrendered and were taken as
prisoners to be sold in Mecca. After killing Asim b.
Thabit, Hudhayl wanted to sell his head to Sulafah bt.
Sad b. Shuhayd, for, she had vowed to drink from the
skull of Asim b. Thabit. This was in retribution for
the killing of her sons (remember? her two sons,
Musafi and Julas were killed by Asim b. Thabit at
Uhud) at Uhud. They could not cut off the head of Asim
b. Thabit, as hornets (?) protected it and Allah sent
a flood in the wadi that carried away Asim’s body!It
is claimed that Asim vowed that no polytheist should
ever touch his body nor would he touch any
polytheist’s body.

When the party, along with the three captives arrived
at al-Zahran, Abd Allah b. Tariq attempted to escape,
but his captors killed him by stoning. The other two
prisoners were taken to Mecca and sold there as
slaves. Hujayr b. Abi Ihab bought Khubayb on behalf of
Uqbah b. al-Harith, so that Uqbah can kill Khubyab in
revenge for his father’s killing at Uhud. Safwan b.
Umayyah bought Zayd b. al-Dathinah to be killed in
revenge for the killing of his father Umayyah b.
Khalaf in Badr II.

Islamic historian, such as Ibn Ishak claims that
Khubyab was a trusty slave because he did not do any
harm to a minor boy of the al-Harith family while the
boy was with him and Khubayab had a blade with him to
shave his hair. Later, the mother of the little boy
vouched that she had never encountered a captive as
virtuous as Khubyab. Of course, these are exaggerated
stories that are better left for the readers to judge.
Khubayb was kept in jail while waiting to be crucified
and remained imprisoned until the sacred months had
passed, and then the Quraysh killed him.

During his execution time at Ka’ba, Khubyab presumably
asked to be allowed to pray two prostrations. He was
allowed to offer his prayer and this became the
tradition for those Muslims who are about to be
executed.

The prayer over, Abu Sirwaah b. al-Harith b. Amir took
Khubyab out and beheaded him.

The other captive Zayd b. al-Dathinah was given to
Safwan’s servant, Nastas for execution .Before the
killing of Zayd b. al-Dathinah, Abu Sufyan wanted to
spare his life in exchange for the life of Muhammad.
But Zayd’s love for Muhammad was so great that he did
not want Muhammad to be hurt even by a thorn prick. In
the end, Nistas killed Zayd b.Dathinah.

Muhammad and the Muslim community were greatly
saddened by the news of the death of those six
Jihadists. Hassan ibn Thabit, the Muslim poet composed
a poem in their memory. Muhammad was alarmed to fear
the deterioration of Muslim prestige in case such
events were to repeat. To counter such fear Allah
promptly sent down His assurance in verse 2:204.

When the news of the kidnap and selling of those two
slaves reached Muhammad, he immediately dispatched Abu
Kurayb to the Quraysh as a spy. It is claimed that he
untied Khubyab’s dead body from the cross. It is also
claimed that the dead body of Khubyab fell on the
ground and disappeared forever

Terror Twenty-six

Attempt on the Liife of Abu Sufyan b. Harb by ‘Amr b.
Umayyah al-Damri-July, 625CE

After the killing of Khubayb (after the affair at
al-Rajii) and his companion, Muhammad commissioned the
service of Amr b. Umayyah al-Damri, a professional
killer, along with an Ansar to murder Abu Sufyan b.
Harb. It is also claimed that during this ruction Abu
Sufyan also sent an assassin to kill Muhammad. The
Muslims caught the assassin and he pleaded for his
life. Muhammad forgave him and he embraced Islam. But
Muhammad wanted to take revenge on Abu Sufyan. So he
sent out a two-man assassin squad led by the hired
killer Amr b. Umayyah, having instructed Amr to kill
Abu Sufyan stealthily when he (Abu Sufyan) is resting
or retiring. These two desperado Jihadists set out,
riding a camel. As per Tabari, the Ansar had a foot
problem. They went riding the camel to the valley of
Yajaj where they decided that Amr would go to Abu
Sufyan’s house to assassinate him. If there was a
commotion, or if there was any danger, then the Ansari
would immediately return to Muhammad for reporting and
further instructions. Amr’s mission to kill Abu Sufyan
was not a success so he returned to his Ansari
companion.

They entered Ka’ba and did the Hajj rituals. While
exiting, a man (Muawiyah, as per Ibn Sa’d) recognised
Amr b. Umaya and cried out; for, Amr was a violent and
unruly fellow. So, the Ka’ba people got up to pursue
Amr. Amr and his Ansari companion then took to the
heel and climbed the mountain and went into a cave
where they spent the night, thus eluding the Meccans.
While they were in the cave, one Quraysh went there to
cut grass for his donkey. He went to the very
proximity of the cave, where Amr had taken sanctuary.
Amr came out of his cave and stabbed the Quraysh for
no reason. The Quraysh’s shrill voice attracted the
attention of other Meccans searching for Amr. When the
Meccans came to the rescue of the mortally wounded
Qurasyh, he told them that Amr had stabbed him; then
he died. The Meccans were so occupied with the dead
Quraysh that they had no time to look for Amr. After
two days of stay in the cave, Amr and his companion
went out, and when they reached al-Tanim they found
the cross of Khubayb. A guard was watching the cross.
Apprehending that the Ansari man was frightened, Amr
advised him to mount the camel, return to Muhammad and
report the story to him. Amr alone went to the cross,
untied the corpse of Khubyab and carried it on his
back. But the Meccans soon found him out. So, Amr
immediately threw down the corpse of Khubyab, ran for
his life and took the road to al-Safra, managing to
escape the Meccan chasers. His Ansari companion
mounted the camel, returned to Muhammad and narrated
him what had happened.

Amr continued on his foot until he came to another
cave and took shelter there with his bows and arrows.
A one-eyed man (a shepherd) of B. al-Dil came to this
snuggery. Amr lied to him that he was a man from B.
Bakr (Quraysh’s ally). The one-eyed man also admitted
that he was from B. Bakr. Then the one-eyed man lay
down beside Amr and sang a song indicating that he
would never become a Muslim as long as he lived. This
angered Amr and he waited to finish off the one-eyed
shepherd. As soon as the shepherd (the one-eyed man)
slept, Amr got up and killed the one-eyed man in the
most a horrible way. He put the end of his arrow in
his sound eye; bore it down until it was forced out at
the back of his neck. After this gory killing of the
Bedouin shepherd, Amr rushed out of the cave and ran
to a nearby village, then to Rakubah and finally to
al-Naqi. While there, he spotted two Meccan spies who
were sent to watch on Muhammad. Amr asked them to
surrender. One of them refused, so Amr killed him with
his arrow. The other Meccan surrendered; Amr tied him
up and took him to Muhammad.

When Amr returned to Muhammad with the Meccan
prisoner, Muhammad blessed Amr for a job well done.

Terror Twenty-seven

The Affairs of Bir Maunah-July, 625CE

This episode is indeed a tragic one for the Muslims.
It involved the slaying of forty (as per Ibn Ishaq) or
seventy of Muslim missionary by the infidels.
Nonetheless, when we review the past activities of
what havoc and terror Muhammad perpetrated on those
who did not believe in him, it is quite clear-cut to
guess that Muhammad was simply asking for such
retribution from his victims. After all, no sane
person can remain sober and peaceful in the face of
Muhammad’s unrelenting foray of terror, torture,
political assassination, war mongering, highway
robbery…etc. It was time for the infidels to get even
and teach Muhammad a lesson that he had been asking
for.

When I consulted several Islamic sources on the
details of this episode, I found quite conflicting and
confusing narrations. Here is the best way that I
could summarize this important event of early Islam.

Four months after the Uhud battle, and following the
return of the hired assassin Amr b. Umayyah, Abu Bara,
the aged chief of the delegation of B. Amir b. Sasaah
came to Muhammad and presented him with a gift. Abu
Bara stayed in Medina. Muhammad declined to accept
that gift because it was from a polytheist and asked
Abu Bara to embrace Islam. Abu Bara declined, although
he acknowledged certain good points of Islam. He
requested Muhammad to send some Muslims to the people
of Najd to call them to Islam. At first, Muhammad was
quite apprehensive of this, as he feared that some
harm might befall on these Muslim missionaries. On
Muhammad’s hesitation, Abu Bara guaranteed the safety
of the emissaries of Muhammad. So Muhammad sent forty
Islamic preachers (some say seventy), making
al-Mundhir b. Amr as the chief of this missionary
team. It is claimed that they were the best of Muslims
among Muhammad’s companions.

These new missionaries (expert Qur’an reciters) rode
on horses until they arrived at the well of Bir
Maunah. Bir Maunah lies between the territories of B.
Amir and B. Sulaym. At Bir Maunah, the Muslims sent a
messenger with a letter of Muhammad to Amir b. Tufayl,
the cousin of Abu Bara and the chief of B. Amir. When
the messenger met Amir b. Tufayl, the latter
immediately killed him without even opening the letter
of Muhammad. Amir b. Tufayl then requested the B. Amir
people to help him fight the Muslims. They refused to
entertain his request, as they were reluctant to
betray the promise of safety by Abu Bara to the
Muslims. So, Amir b. Tufayl took the help of B. Sulaym
against the Muslims. Together, they attacked the
Muslims. The Muslims fought back, but in the end, all
of them were killed except for Ka’b b. Zayd. He was at
the point of death when the enemy left him. He
survived and somehow managed to return to Medina.

Sahih Bukhari records this incidence in this Hadith:

Volume 2, Book 16, Number 116:

Narrated 'Asim:

   I asked Anas bin Malik about the Qunut. Anas
replied, "Definitely it was (recited)". I
asked, "Before bowing or after it?" Anas
replied, "Before bowing." I added, "So and so
has told me that you had informed him that it
had been after bowing." Anas said, "He told an
untruth (i.e. "was mistaken," according to the
Hijazi dialect). Allah's Apostle recited Qunut
after bowing for a period of one month." Anas
added, "The Prophet sent about seventy men
(who knew the Quran by heart) towards the
pagans (of Najd) who were less than they in
number and there was a peace treaty between
them and Allah's Apostles (but the Pagans
broke the treaty and killed the seventy men).
So Allah's Apostle recited Qunut for a period
of one month asking Allah to punish them."

When the news of this massacre reached Muhammad, he
was greatly grieved and sent Amr b. Umayyah (the
professional killer, remember?) and an Aansar to
investigate the whole matter. They approached the area
and discovered the killing of the Muslims by the
swirling vultures in the sky. They witnessed the
Muslims lying in blood and their killers standing by.
In anger they resorted to fight. The perpetrators
killed the Ansar in no time and took Amr b. Umayyah as
a prisoner. But soon he was released by Amir b. Tufayl
due to distant kinship. Before releasing Amr, Amir cut
off his forelock.

Upon his release from Amir b. Tufayl, Amr b. Umayyah
traveled towards Medina. On his way he stopped at
Qarkarat, an oasis where he met two men of B. Amir who
halted next to Amr b. Umayyah. B. Amir had a treaty of
protection with Muhammad that Amr b. Umayyah was
unaware of. When they were asleep, Amr rushed and
killed these two men of B. Amir thinking that he had
taken his revenge. When Muhammad learned what Amr had
done he told Amr that he (Muhammad) had to pay the
blood money. Muhammad blamed the whole episode of
slaughter to Abu Bara. When Abu Bara heard of what had
previously been suspected, he was greatly remorseful
at the betrayal of Amir b. Tufayl.

One may legitimately ask why only Muhammad had to pay
blood money for the killing of the two people of B.
Amir but he (Muhammad) received no blood money for the
killing of the Muslim missionaries? Tabari explains
this seemingly confusing rule on blood money in a
footnote. He writes:

“Muhammad had to pay blood money for the murder of two
men of b Amir because of the compact he had with them.
He could not claim blood money for the Muslims as
presumably the B. Sulaym killed them even if Amir b.
Tufayl had asked the B. Sulaym to do so.”

On the slaying of Muslim missionaries, Hassan b.
Thabit (Muhammad’s personal poet) composed a
passionate poem on the sad demise of them and incited
the sons of Abu Bara against Amir b. al-Tufayl. When
Rabiah, the son of Abu Bara heard the words of Hassan
b. Thabit, he attacked Amir b. al-Tufayl with his
lance but failed to kill him. Amir put the blame on
his uncle Abu Bara and vowed to take revenge either
himself or by other people, should he die.

Naturally, Muhammad was extremely crestfallen at the
Bir Maunah affair. His followers were deeply
demoralized at this tragedy. To boost their morale
Allah quickly sent down verse 3:169-173, in which He
declared that the Jihadists do not die; they live,
finding their sustenance with Him. It is said that
Allah released another verse in which the slain
Jihadists informed their people that they had met
Allah; but the verse was, later, abrogated.
Mubarakpuri, sourcing from Islamic authorities, quotes
this abrogated verse thus: “Inform our people that we
have met our Lord. He is pleased with us and He has
made us pleased.” It is not known why Allah suddenly
changed His mind and ostensibly abrogated this verse.
Nowhere in the Qur’an the abrogation of any such verse
is mentioned!

Muhammad now started a campaign to collect blood money
from the Muslims and their Jewish allies. As the Jews
were much wealthier than the Muslims, Muhammad devised
a clever plan to extract this blood money from the
Jews of B. Nadir, who were living in their sanctuary
that was not very far off from the Muslims’ quarter.
Muhammad had already made up his mind to expel this
group of Jews and appropriate their land and property,
to not only to pay blood money, but also to enrich his
downhearted Jihadists who were absolutely dispirited
at the tragedy of Bir Maunah. He had to do something
urgently to placate and to lift their morale and to
save his prestige and clout among his fanatic
believers. His experience with B. Qaynuqa (read Terror
14) had already taught him how simple it was to
terrorize an entire section of infidel population,
steal their land and property with impunity and
without the slightest of any compunction. Muhammad was
now poised to use terror again to his full advantage.

Chapter Eight

‘One man’s faith is another man’s delusion’---Dr.
Anthony Storr (1920-2001)

Terror Twenty-eight

The Ethnic Cleansing of B. Nadir Jews from Medina by
Muhammad-July, 625CE

Bani Nadir Jews inhabited the fertile land in the
vicinity of Medina. They were prosperous Jews, having
vast tracts of land, on which they cultivated date
palms. They were in confederation with the B. Amir
people. As mentioned previously (CH. 7), Muhammad went
to the Bani Nadir Jews to raise the blood money to be
paid for the killing of two men of B. Amir, whom the
professional killer, Amr b. Umayya al-Damri had killed
by mistake.

So, Muhammad, with a few of his followers, including,
Abu Bakr, Ali and Umar visited the village of B.
Nadir, two or three miles away from Medina and
requested the chief of B. Nadir to refund the blood
money that he had already paid. The B. Nadir Jews
received Muhammad courteously, asked him to sit down
while they attentively listened to his demand and
agreed to honor Muhammad’s request. Muhammad was quite
unhappy when the B. Nadir readily agreed to his
demand. In reality, he was expecting the B. Nadir Jews
to reject his demand, so that he could have a good
pretext to attack them and seize their land and
property.

After agreeing to Muhammad’s demand for blood money,
the B. Nadir Jews went for a private discussion among
themselves. This unnerved Muhammad. While he was
sitting by the wall of a house, he thought that B.
Nadir Jews were plotting to kill him. He claimed that
B. Nadir Jews wanted to kill him by dropping a stone
from top of the house. As usual, he pretended that
Gabriel gave him this information. So, he suddenly
stood up and left the place, as if to answer the call
of nature asking others, including Abu Bakr, Umar and
Ali not to leave the place until he returned. When his
companions found that Muhammad’s return was very much
delayed, they went out looking for him. On their way
to Medina they met a man who told them he saw Muhammad
was headed for Medina. When they met Muhammad at
Medina, he told them his perception of treachery by B.
Nadir and asked the Muslims to prepare to fight the B.
Nadir.

With clear war and invasion of Jewish property in
mind, Muhammad asked another of his professional
assassins, Muhammad ibn Maslamah (remember? He
murdered Ka’b b. Ashraf, see Terror 17, CH. 5) to go
to the Banu Nadir Jews to announce to them the
ultimatum to vacate Medina. He gave the Jews ten days
to evacuate Medina and, if after this deadline any Jew
was seen in the area, he would be killed---the
ultimatum said. The B. Nadir Jews were startled with
this sudden change of heart of Muhammad. They could
not believe it coming from a person like Muhammad who
claimed to be the messenger of Allah. They were more
surprised that Muhammad ibn Maslamah, who was hitherto
very much on friendly terms with the Jews had to serve
them the ultimatum. When the B. Nadir Jews expressed
their dismay at the action of Muhammad b. Maslamah, he
said, “ Hearts have changed, and Islam has wiped out
the old covenants.”

When Abd Allah ibn Ubayy learned about the precarious
situation of the B. Nadir Jews, he sent the message to
them that he himself would be coming to their
assistance with two thousand Jewish and Arab fighters.
But the Banu Nadir Jews recalled that the same person
promised to help the Banu Qaynuqa Jews, but in the
end, betrayed. So, the Banu Nadir Jews, at first,
decided towards removing themselves to Khaybar or
nearby. They thought that they could still come to
Yathrib (Medina) to harvest their crops and then
return to their fortresses at Khaybar. Huyayy ibn
Akhtab, their leader finally resolved against this
view. He decided to send a message to Muhammad,
declining his order of expulsion,. entered in their
fortified fortresses, stocked them with enough
supplies to last up to a year and got ready to defend
themselves. So, no Jew left Medina after the expiry of
the ten days ultimatum. Muhammad now had the most
legitimate reason to besiege the Jews.

Accordingly, when Muhammad ibn Maslamah returned to
Medina with the news of the Jews, Muhammad, the
Prophet immediately gave order to his fanatic
Jihadists in his mosque to arm themselves and march
forward to lay a siege on the fortresses of B. Nadir
Jews. A band of Muslims, with Muhammad as their leader
started marching against B. Nadir who had already
taken shelter in their formidable fortresses. In the
beginning, the Jews attacked the Muslim besiegers with
arrows and stones and held out gallantly. Although not
unexpected, they were greatly disappointed when no
help came from Abd Allah ibn Ubayy, nor from any other
previously trusted sources. The siege lasted for
fifteen or twenty days, and Muhammad became very
impatient. At last, to hasten their surrender,
Muhammad, in contravention of the revered laws of Arab
warfare, cut down the surrounding date trees and
burned them. When the Jews protested about the
breaking of sacrosanct Arab laws on warfare, he
demanded a special revelation from Allah (59:4) that
was promptly sent down, sanctioning the destruction of
enemy’s palm trees. In this verse Allah gave generous
permission to the Muslims to cut down the palm trees:
it was not a destruction but the vengeance from Allah,
and to humble the evil doers that is to say, it is
alright to cut down cultivated land and burn crops in
a war. The Muslim poet (or the war correspondent of
those days) Hassan b. Thabit enjoyed this gutting of
the livelihood of the B. Nadir Jews and composed
lyrics on this savage acts of the Jihadists.. Here is
a Hadith from Sahih Bukhari that describes Hassan’s
mood :

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 519:

Narrated 'Abdullah:

   The Prophet got the date palm trees of the
tribe of Bani-An-Nadir burnt and the trees cut
down at a place called Al-Buwaira . Hassan bin
Thabit said in a poetic verse: "The chiefs of
Bani Lu'ai found it easy to watch fire
spreading at Al-Buwaira."

After Muhammad destroyed their only source of
livelihood, the B. Nadir found their case completely
hopeless, and finding no other alternative, they
decided to surrender and abandon their lands. In
exchange for this, they wanted Muhammad to spare their
lives, on which he agreed, on condition that they
could only take those of their property that they
could carry on their camels. He stipulated that the
Jews must surrender their arms. They were allowed to
carry whatever they could stock upon their camels. The
Jews agreed to comply with those humiliating
conditions, loaded six hundred camels with their goods
and departed from their ancestral land with fanfare,
din and alacrity. Some of them, with their chiefs
Huyey, Sallam and Kinana went to Khaybar. The rest of
them went to Jericho and the highlands of south Syria.
Only two of them embraced Islam. They were given back
their land and all of their properties.

[ Note: The Sharia Law (Islamic Law) on destruction of
enemy properties states:

It is permissible in Jihad to cut down the enemy trees
and destroy their dwellings.

Once the expulsion of B. Nadir Jews was complete,
Muhammad took over the ownership of their property
making it his personal chattel that he could dispose
of as he wished. He claimed that the spoils of B.
Nadir belonged to Allah and to him exempting the land
from the usual law of distribution of booty because it
was gained without actually fighting. He divided the
land according to his discretion, choosing the best
lots for himself. With the exception of two Medina
citizens (Ansar) the whole of B. Nadir lands were
distributed among the refugees (Muhajirs). In this way
the refugees became independent and affluent.
Muhammad, Abu Bakr, Umar, Zubayr and the other chief
companions of Muhammad acquired valuable estates. The
other booty consisted of fifty armors coats, fifty
stand of armor and three hundred and fifty swords.
Thus, the expulsion of B. Nadir Jews was a great
material success for Muhammad. An entire sura (Sura
59:al- Hashr) relates to the affair of B. Nadir, where
Allah says that the B. Nadir Jews were subdued by the
striking of terror in their hearts. Terror, duly
sanctioned by Allah, thus became a legitimate weapon
in the arsenal of Muhammad.

On the success of this terror and plunder, Hussain
Haykal writes that this was the biggest prize to the
Muslims. These booties were not divided among the
Muslims as war booty. They were all considered as a
trust which Muhammad divided among the early emigrants
after putting away some for the purposes of the poor
and the deprived. Thus, the necessary economic support
of the Muhajirun by al-Ansar was alleviated for the
first time. The Muhajirun now acquired as much wealth
as their hosts.

Continuing further, Hussain Haykal comments:

After the expulsion of the B. Nadir Jews, Muhammad
distributed their lands to the Mohajirs and with this,
they were quite satisfied with their new lands. The
Ansars were equally happy that they no longer had to
support the Mohajirs.

In this way, Muhammad became quite a rich man in
Medina and the migrant Muslims found a permanent means
of their livelihood.

Until the exit of B.Nadir Jews from Medina, Muhammad’s
secretary was a Jew. Muhammad chose him because of his
ability to write letters in Hebrew and Syriac as well
as in Arabic. After the evacuation of Banu Nadir Jews,
Muhammad no longer trusted a non-Muslim to write his
letters. So, he engaged Zayd ibn Thabit, a Medinese
youth to learn the two languages, and appointed him as
his secretary for all affairs. Zayd ibn Thabit also
collected/compiled the Qur’an during the caliphate of
Abu Bakr and Uthman.

Muhammad claimed that B. Nadir property was a special
gift from Allah to him. He sold B. Nadir booty to
purchase arms, horses, provision for his wives and
used the B. Nadir property to support his wives. Here
is a Hadith in support of the actions of Muhammad from
Sahih Bukahri:

Volume 6, Book 60, Number 407:

Narrated Umar:

   The properties of Bam An-Nadir were among the
booty that Allah gave to His Apostle such
Booty were not obtained by any expedition on
the part of Muslims, neither with cavalry, nor
with camelry. So those properties were for
Allah's Apostle only, and he used to provide
thereof the yearly expenditure for his wives,
and dedicate the rest of its revenues for
purchasing arms and horses as war material to
be used in Allah's Cause.

Here is another Hadith from Sunaan Abu Dawud about
Muhammad’s exclusive rights on the annexed properties
of B. Nadir, Fadak and Khaybar:

Book 19, Number 2961:

Narrated Umar ibn al-Khattab:

   Malik ibn Aws al-Hadthan said: One of the
arguments put forward by Umar was that he said
that the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him)
received three things exclusively to himself:
Banu an-Nadir, Khaybar and Fadak. The Banu
an-Nadir property was kept wholly for his
emergent needs, Fadak for travellers, and
Khaybar was divided by the Apostle of Allah
(peace_be_upon_him) into three sections: two
for Muslims, and one as a contribution for his
family. If anything remained after making the
contribution of his family, he divided it
among the poor Emigrants.

Once again, we note that terrorism had really paid a
huge dividend to Muhammad and his horde of fanatic
Jihadists.

Many Islamists often claim that ‘There is no
compulsion in religion’ (2:256) to portray the
religious freedom in Islam. However, they cleverly
avoid the context of this verse. This verse relates to
some Muslim children who were raised as Jews with the
B. Nadir. This happened, because during those days,
many Muslims who had difficulty in having children
used to vow that if Allah gave them any child they
would make that child a Jew and raise the child with
the Jews. When Muhammad performed his ethnic cleansing
on the Jews of B. Nadir, the Muslim parents of these
children asked him about what should they do with
their children. Muhammad permitted these children to
remain Jews by saying ‘There should be no compulsion
in religion.’ Therefore, the verse 2:256 has no
relevance with religious freedom whatsoever.

Here is a Hadith from Sunaan Abu Dawud on this matter:

Book 14, Number 2676:

Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas:

   When the children of a woman (in pre-Islamic
days) did not survive, she took a vow on
herself that if her child survives, she would
convert it a Jew. When Banu an-Nadir were
expelled (from Arabia), there were some
children of the Ansar (Helpers) among them.
They said: We shall not leave our children. So
Allah the Exalted revealed; "Let there be no
compulsion in religion. Truth stands out clear
from error."

Terror Twenty-nine

Raid Against B. Ghatafan at Dhat al-Riqa by
Muhammad-October, 625CE

After the expulsion of the B. Nadir Jews, Muhammad
stayed in Medina for two months. Then he received the
news that certain tribes of B. Ghatafan were
assembling at Dhat al Riqa with suspicious purposes.
The Ghatafan were an Arabian tribe, descended from
Qais. Muhammad, proceeding up to Nakhl led an
expedition against the B. Muhamrib and the B.
Thalabah, a sub-clan of the Ghatafan. This is called
the expedition of Dhat al-Riqa’(the patchwork of
mountain) because the mountain after which it was
named had black, white and red patches on it. He made
a surprise raid on them with four hundred (or seven
hundred) men to disperse them. The Ghatafan fled to
the mountains, leaving their women behind. No fighting
took place but Muhammad attacked their habitations and
carried all their women off including a very pretty
girl. When the prayer time came, the Muslims were
terrified that the Ghatafan men might descend from
their mountain hideout and make a sudden attack on
them while they were praying. Apprehending this fear,
Muhammad introduced the ‘service of prayer of danger.’
In this system, a party of faithful stands guard while
the other party prays. Then they take turns. The
public prayer is thus repeated twice. A revelation
came from Allah on this provision (4:100-102)
regarding shortening of a prayer.

While Muhammad was resting under the shade of a tree
at Dhat al-Riqa, a polytheist man came to him with the
intention of killing him. The man was playing with
Muhammad’s sword and pointed it to Muhammad; asked him
if he was afraid of him or not. Muhammad claimed that
Allah would protect him and that he was not afraid at
all. The would-be assassin then sheathed the sword and
returned it to Muhammad. On this occasion Allah
revealed verse 5:11, proclaiming His unflinching
protection for Muhammad whenever someone stretches his
hand out for his life. After fifteen days Muhammad
returned to Medina. But he was not at peace; he
apprehended that the B. Ghatafan might make a sudden
attack to reclaim their women.

Surprisingly, the Sirah (biography of Muhammad) is
completely silent about what happened to those
captured women of Ghatafan. I searched most of the
well-known Islamic sources, but they are as mute as a
fish. However, if I have to go by the Islamic rules
then I am pretty certain that those women were awarded
to the Jihadists to be enjoyed or sold as slaves to
raise money for war as per the booty rules

Terror Thirty

The Expedition for Badr III by Muhammad-January, 626CE

As per the appointment at Uhud (see Terror 21, CH. 6),
the forces of Mecca and Medina were to meet again at
Badr within a year. That time soon arrived. This was a
year of great drought. Abu Sufyan b. Harb thought it
to be unwise to set out for a war in this year of
famine and desired that the appointment be deferred to
a year of plenty. He sent an emissary, Nuaym, to
Medina who exaggerated the preparation of the Meccans.
Abu Sufyan did that hoping that this exaggeration
might dissuade the Muslims who still had in mind, the
terrible defeat at Uhud. The Quraysh, however, marched
from Mecca with two thousand foot soldiers and fifty
horses. Abu Sufyan went out of Mecca as far as Usfan,
then decided to go back after two days of marching,
because he could not find a good pasture, the year
being a year of severe drought. The Meccan army was
reduced to live on flour and water only. Hence this is
also known as the expedition of Sawick (barley
porridge).

The report of Nuaym greatly alarmed the Muslims of
Medina. Many of them were reluctant to meet the
formidable enemy again. But Muhammad decided to go
forth. He gathered fifteen hundred men and prepared
for the march to Badr. This was the third time that
the two armies were presumably to meet at Badr. The
Muslims arrived at Badr and encamped there for eight
days. They carried a lot of wares with them in
anticipation of a fair there. When they arrived at
Badr they found no Quraysh army there. Muhammad waited
for the rendezvous with Abu Sufyan b. Harb. When this
did not materialise he met Makashi b. Amr al-Damri and
expressed his intention of dissolving their treaty of
peace, if B. Damri people desired. Actually, Muhammad
wanted to wage a war on this tribal people as he felt
he was strong enough to terrorize smaller tribes. But
the Damri people decided to keep the treaty of peace
with him.

The Muslim army bartered their wares, made good profit
and returned to Medina. Muhammad was much pleased with
this expedition and took that as a sign of Allah. He
received the revelation 3:172-175 regarding Satan
casting fear in the mind of Muhammad.

When the Quraysh heard of Muhammad’s rejoice, they
were greatly mortified, fearing further terrorism from
him. They began to plan another grand attack against
Muhammad. It took them a year to plan and execute the
attack. During this period Muhammad had a little
respite.

Terror Thirty-one

First Raid at Dumat al-Jandal byMuhammad-July, 626CE

In the summer of 626CE Muhammad purportedly received
intelligence reports that the Ghatafan tribe, once
again, had mobilised troops at Dumat al-Jandal to
launch an attack on him. Dumat al-Jandal is an oasis
on the frontier between Hijaz and al-Sham, midway
between the Red sea and the Persian Gulf.on the
borders of Syria. A severe drought during this time
caused famine in this area. Without wasting any time,
Muhammad immediately made a raid on this band of
Ghatafan tribe and captured their herd grazing in the
neighbourhood. He led this expedition with an army of
one thousand men and reached the confines of Syria. No
fighting took place as the B. Ghatafan fled without
giving any opposition. The Muslims returned to Medina
with the booty. This expedition greatly enhanced the
lust for plunder in the hearts of Muhammad’s men. On
his way back, Muhammad entered into a truce with
Uyanah b. Hisn, the leader of B. Fazarah, a powerful
part of Ghatafan, so that Uyanah b. Hisn b. Hudhayfah
could pasture his herds in the nearby territory of
Taghlaman, controlled by Muhammad as Uyanah’s
territory was afflicted with drought. The land at
Taghlaman was lush with pasturage due to rain there.

Chapter Nine

‘Among the forms of mistake, prophecy is the most
gratuitous’---George Eliot (1819-1880)

Terror Thirty-two

The Battle of the Trench Led by Muhammad-February,
627CE

After the successful raids for booty, Muslims in
Medina felt safe and secure. Their need was largely
ameliorated by the swag they acquired through these
plunders. Muhammad became militarily strong by the
forced evacuation of Banu Qaynuqua and Banu Nadir Jews
from their ancestral lands in Medina. However,
Muhammad was always cautious, lest the enemy strike
without notice. And true to his fear, the enemy did
strike him no sooner than he was relaxing with his
booty and the new found military might. When the
winter season came, the Quraysh prepared for an attack
against Muhammad. This was the battle of the Trench or
the battle of Ahzab (the confederates).

This battle took place in February, 627 (Shawal, AH
5). The major cause of this battle was the expulsion,
or the ethnic cleansing of the B. Nadir Jews from
Medina.

After the expulsion of the B. Qaynuqa and the B. Nadir
Jews from Medina, the exiled leaders of the Jews, like
Salam b. Abi al-Huqayq al-Nadri, Huyayy b. Akhtab
al-Nadri, Kinanah b. al-Rabi b. Abi al-Huqayq… etc.
went to Mecca and met with the Quraysh leaders and
formed a confederation to fight a menacing Muhammad.
At first, the Quraysh were skeptical about the Jews as
the Jewish religion was quite close to Islam. They
asked the Jews about whose religion was better-the
paganism or the Islam? The Jews answered that the
Quraysh’s religion (i.e., paganism) was better than
that of Muhammad’s new brand of monotheism. This
pleased the Quraysh, and they accepted unhesitatingly
the Jews as their allay. On this, Allah revealed
4:51-55, denouncing the Jews for upholding paganism
and He promised hell to the Jews.

Being satisfied with the Jewish leaders, the Quraysh
were now ready to strike a mortal blow to Muhammad and
his horde of fanatical Jihadists. Having secured the
agreement of the Quraysh, the Jewish leaders
approached the Ghatafan and a few other tribes around
Mecca and convinced them to launch an attack in
confederation with the Quraysh. Thus, the Quraysh,
under the leadership of Abu Sufyan b. Harb and the
Ghatafan, under the leadership of Uyanah b. Hisn b.
Hudhayfah (see Terror 31, CH. 8) marched out for
Medina. Some biographers list Uyanah as the leader of
B. Fazarah tribe, B. Fazarah being a sub-clan of the
Ghatafan. The other tribes that joined them were: B.
Murrah and Masud b. Rukhaylah from Ashja tribe. The
Quraysh themselves brought four thousand soldiers
including three hundred horses, and fifteen hundred
camels. The entire Meccan force was of ten thousand
men. They marched in three separate camps. The general
commander was Abu Sufyan b. harb. The flag of the
battle was assigned to Uthman ibn Talhah whose father
was killed in the battle of Uhud.

Soon this news of a planned attack reached Muhammad.
He was quite unprepared for this sudden attack from
the Quraysh and its allies. The experience of Uhud was
still fresh in the minds of the Muslims. Another
battle against the Quraysh was out of the question.

Sensing profound trouble, Muhammad convened a conclave
of his trusted lieutenants. In this meeting, Salman,
the Persian convert, suggested digging a trench around
Medina to protect it from the impending attack of the
Meccans. He had been a Christian captive of
Mesopotamia, bought by a Jew from the Bani Kalb. Then
he was ransomed and converted to Islam. He was
familiar with this mode of defence of a city in other
countries. This was a completely new strategy that
Arabia had never practiced. Muhammad and his followers
readily adopted this great strategy of defence. The
work consisted of digging a deep trench, probably ten
yards (thirty feet) wide and five yards (fifteen feet)
deep, three and half mile long all around the city of
Medina. For a speedy completion, the work was divided
between various clans.

Muhammad now assembled his men to dig this trench and
inspired them with the rewards of Paradise. It was the
fasting month of Ramadan, and Muhammad hired the
digging implements from the Jews of B. Qurayzah.
Between one thousand to three thousand Muslims worked
from dawn to dusk to complete the dry moat, and they
all joined to face the formidable army of the Quraysh
and its confederates that numbered ten thousand.
Muhammad started cursing the Meccans, inviting Allahs
wrath on them as narrated in Sahih Bukhari:

Volume 5, Book 59, Number 415:

Narrated Anas:

Allah's Apostle said Al-Qunut for one month after the
posture of Bowing, invoking evil upon some 'Arab
tribes.

Some hypocrites joined in but they became sloppy and
slipped away to be with their families without the
permission of Muhammad. Nonetheless, the true
believers kept going with dogged determination,
halting intermittently just to join their families
with permission from their spiritual leader. On this
occasion Allah revealed 24:62, praising these true
Jihadists and promising them His forgiveness. On the
errant hypocrites, Allah revealed 24:63-64, disclosing
that He knows about their secret. After working
diligently for a few days (some say eight days), the
diehard Muslims completed the trench surrounding
Medina, ahead of the arrival of the Meccan troop. They
were now very satisfied with the freshly dug dry
trench, inspired by Salman, the Farsi. Each clan
claimed that Salman belonged to their side. On this,
Muhammad said, “Salman is one of us, the people of the
Household (ahl al-bayt).”

The Muslim historians, Tabari and Ishak narrate the
incredible story that while the trench was being dug,
Allah caused a white rock to emerge from the bottom of
the trench. Muhammad went down into the trench with
Salman; struck the rock with his pick axe and a flash
of lightning spread out that illuminated the two
tracks of Medina’s black mountains!

Muhammad explained this as the sign of Allah for
Muslim’s victory. He even claimed that that spark of
lightning lit up the Byzanatine and Khusroo’s (the
Persian emperor) empire, meaning that he (Muhammad)
would be victorious over them. Muhammad’s harangue
thus lifted up further, the sprit of the Muslim earth
diggers. They were now absolutely confident that Allah
had assured them a signal victory. Other miraculous
stories about the increase in food supply when the
Muslim army’s provision ran out is told in Sahih
Bukhari, such as Volume 5, Book 59, Number 428. For
brevity and conciseness I refrain from quoting this
lengthy Hadith.

But from the very beginning, the hypocrites were
skeptical about Muhammad’s claims and they tried to
subdue the morale of the ardent Jihadists. On this,
Allah’s oracle came down in verse 33:12 revealing the
diseased minds of the hypocrites.

The digging of the trench completed, on the eighth of
Dzul Kada (March 2, 626 CE), the army of Medina was
posted with the trench. The houses outside the town
were evacuated and their residents were placed for
security, on tops of the double-storied houses nearby
the freshly dug trench. During this evacuation stage,
the army of Mecca was reported to have advanced at
Uhud. Muhammad’s army was three thousand men and was
posted across the road leading to Uhud, having the
trench in front of them.

The Meccans, at first encamped at Uhud and finding no
opposition there rapidly moved up the road to Medina.
Soon, they arrived near the freshly dug trench, and
was greatly surprised at the defense tactics of
Muhammad. They were unable to come closer to the
Medina quarters. So, they resorted to archery from a
distance.

In the mean time, Huyayy b. Akhtab, the leader of the
expelled B. Nadir Jews conferred with Ka’b b. Asad,
the B. Qurayzah Jew’s chief, to break the latter’s
contract of truce with Muhammad. At first, Ka’b
refused to meet Huyayy, but finally relented to
Huyayy’s persistent pleading.

Huyayy then informed Ka’b about the mobilization of
the Quraysh and the Ghatafan to confront Muhammad once
and for all and urged Ka’b to repudiate all his treaty
with Muhammad. He requested Ka’b’s co-operation,
promising him his unflinching support in case the
Ghatafn and the Quraysh retreated without finishing
off Muhammad. At first, Ka’b was hesitant to tow the
line with Huyayy, but finally gave in when Huayayy
vouched that in case of trouble, he (Huyayy) would
move forthwith to Ka’b’s fortress, so that, whatever
befell K’ab would be his fate too. In this way Ka’b
renounced his peace treaty with Muhammad and Huyayy
moved in the fortress of B. Qurayzah Jews to stay with
them.

When this news reached Muhammad, he sent his trusted
Jihadist, Sa’d b. Muadh, along with a few of his elite
companions to investigate stealthily about its
veracity.

When the team of Sa’d b. Muadh met the B. Qurayzah Jew
leader Ka’b b. Asad, he (Ka’b) immediately repudiated
their treaty with Muhammad. He demanded that the
Muslims return the Jews of Banu Nadir back to their
former quarters in Medina. On this, Sa’d ibn Muadh,
who was closely allied with the Banu Qurayzah Jews,
warned them that something worse than Banu Nadir might
befall the Banu Qurayzah in case they persisted on
this betrayal of covenant with the Muslims.
Nonetheless, even under such a dire threat from Sa’d
b. Mudah, Ka’b refused to surrender to his demand.

So, a disappointed Sa’d b. Muadh returned to Muhammad
and told him the extremely bad news. Muhammad took it
as a treachery on the part of B. Qurayzah, and Allah
immediately confirmed this in verse 33:20. However,
please note that the B.Qurayzah were under no
obligation to honor the treaty if they wanted, as
Muhammad, in the past had broken many such treaties.
Moreover, the B. Qurayzah Jews never intended to
attack Muhammad, they simply negated the pact with
Muhammad.

When Muhammad heard what Sa’d had to say, he was
perturbed, no doubt, but showed no alarm; instead, he
said, “God is greatest! Rejoice, people of the

Muslims!” This was, of course, designed to keep his
army in shape and in good spirit. Allah promptly sent
down verse 33:10, saying, “The enemy came upon them
from above and from beneath…..”. regarding the double
danger (from top and bottom) facing the Muslims

Although, outwardly showing no alarm, Muhammad was
quite frightful at the prospect of losing the war. He
was in constant anxiety that the trench may be
overcome and that the Jews might attack from behind.
The people of Medina were greatly disappointed at that
turn of the events. Many of his followers begged to be
released to look after their properties that they had
left behind. They considered Muhammad to be weak and
helpless; questioned the divine assistance for him and
apprehended that his promises of Khusroo’s and
Caesar’s wealth were hollow. Now, they felt afraid to
venture outside the confines of their city. Many of
them claimed immunity from fighting, using the alibi
that their houses were exposed to the enemy as
expressed in verse 33:13.

The confederates and the Muslim soldiers stayed in
their position for twenty days (or a month) facing
each other across the trench without any fighting,
except for shooting arrows at each other. On the
Quraysh side were Khalid b. Walid and Wahshi, the
Abyssinian Negro slave.

Becoming desperate with such a long drawn stalemate,
Muhammad made a clever attempt to bribe the Ghatafan
to desert the battlefield. Secretly, he sent an
emissary to Uyanah b. Hisn, the leader of the Ghatafan
(or Fazarah) and tempted him to accept his offer of
one-third of the date harvest of Medina on condition
that they remove themselves from the battlefield.
Uyanah signaled his willingness to accept the deal and
bargained the offer to one-half. However, when
Muhammad disclosed this deal for the approval of B.
Aws and B. Khazraj, they spurned it and offered
nothing but sword to the confederates of the Quraysh.
Muhammad’s great confidante, Sa’d b. Muadh objected in
offering such a generous gift to the Ghatafan. He
promised to offer only sword to the Ghatafan, saying,
“Messenger of God, we and these people used to be
polytheists, associating [other divinities] with God
and worshipping idols, and we neither worshipped God
nor knew him, and they did not hope to a single date
of ours except in hospitality or by buying. Now that
God has conferred Islam on us, guided us to it, and
strengthened us with your presence, shall we give them
our wealth? We have no need for this! By God, we will
offer them only the sword, until God judge between us
and them.” So, Muhammad reluctantly, dropped this
bribery deal.

On the other side, the Quraysh army, despite their
vast number, was very frustrated by the strong
vigilance of the Muslim army. When this stand-off grew
intolerable, a few of the Quraysh, among them, Ikrimah
b. Abi Jahl (Abu Jahl was brutally murdered at Badr),
commanded the confederates to prepare themselves for
an attack. With this instruction, they advanced and
when they reached near the freshly dug trench, they
were totally taken aback at this innovative approach
of defense that was never practiced in Arabia.They
then made a general attack through a narrow and weakly
guarded part of the trench. Ikrimah cleared the ditch
and galloped in front of the enemy. Among the other
Quraysh who crossed the trench was Amr b. Abd Wudd.
Ibn Sa’d. reports that Amr was ninety years old! Ali
rushed forward to confront the intruders. When he saw
Amr, Ali called him to join Islam, but Amr readily
declined. Then Ali challenged Amr to fight him, on
which Amr passionately told Ali that he did not wish
to kill his nephew (Ali was the son Amr’s brother, Abu
Talib). But Ali expressed his desire to kill Amr, his
uncle. On this, an angry Amr jumped out of his horse
and attacked Ali.

A duel ensued between Ali and Amr, in which Ali killed
Amr. The rest of Amr’s companions panicked and started
to disperse. Ali managed to slaughter another
polytheist, gravely injured yet another who managed to
cross the trench, but later died of his wound at
Mecca. Another Quraysh polytheist fell into the ditch
while attempting to jump over the trench. He fell
inside the deep trench. The marauding Muslim soldiers
gathered at the site and pelted stone at him. When
this hapless victim shrieked in pain, Ali went down
and beheaded him. The Muslims took the corpse to
Muhammad, seeking his permission to sell it. But
Muhammad declined and instructed his Jihadists to do
whatever they liked with the dead body. Nothing is
known what the Jihadists did to the polytheist’s
corpse. It is reported that the Negro slave, Wahsi,
with his unerring javelin, killed one Jihadist,
al-Tufayl b. al-Numan and Dirar ibn al-Khattab (Umar’s
brother?) killed another Muslim, Kab ibn Zayd.

The Quraysh did not make any further attempt to cross
the trench during the day, but made great preparations
at night. Next morning, they launched a general attack
with a massive force. But all their attempts were
without effect. They could not cross the trench. Sa’d
ibn Muadah, the chief of B. Aws was wounded severely
in his arm (or shoulder as per Muir by an arrow. He
promised to exact his revenge on B. Qurayzah, for the
man, who shot him was on friendly terms with the B.
Qurayzah. The Quraysh lost three men while the Muslims
lost five.

The Muslims could not offer prayer on that day. They
were too busy with the war. At night, when the enemy
returned to their camp, the Muslims gathered and
offered a special prayer for those missed prayers.

We learn from the narratives of Ibn Ishaq and Tabari
that there was no wearing of Hijab (veil) by the Arab
women during this period. While the battle of Ahzab
was raging, Aisha was in the fortress of B. Haritha
and the mother of Sa’d b. Muadh was with her. Aisha
wore no Hijab when Sa’d b. Muadh passed her by wearing
a coat of mail through which Aisha could view the
entire forearm of Sa’d b. Muadh.

During this time, Saffiyah bt. Abd al-Muttalib,
Muhammad’s aunt was in Fari, the fortress of Hassan b.
Thabit, the official poet of Muhammad. She discovered
a Jew circling the fortress of Hassan b. Thabit. When
Saffiya requested Hassan b. Thabit to go downstairs
and kill the suspicious Jew, he declined. So she went
downstairs and clubbed the Jew to death herself. She
then requested Hassan b. Thabit to strip the Jew naked
and to take his arms and coats of mail as booty.
Hassan b. Thabit refused to do that, as he was not in
need of the spoils.

During this lengthy blockade, Muhammad became
desperate, searching for a way out. Just then, a
double-agent, Nuaym b. Masud b. Amir from the Ghatafan
approached Muhammad to offer his service of sleuthing
Muhammad’s enemies. He claimed that he had embraced
Islam and was available to offer his assistance as a
double agent. Muhammad engaged him to his advantage
and told him that ‘war is deception.’ He said to
Nuaym, “You are only one man among us. Make them
abandon [each other], if you can, so that they leave
us; for war is deception.” Here is a Hadith from Sahih
Bukhari that confirms Muhammad’s view of war as an act
of deception:

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 269:

   Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah:

   The Prophet said, "War is deceit."

A similar Hadith is also found in Sunaan Abu Dawud:

Book 14, Number 2631:

   Narrated Ka'b ibn Malik:

   When the Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) intended
to go on an expedition, he always pretended to
be going somewhere else, and he would say: War
is deception.

After Muhammad’s persuasive talk, Nuaym went to the B.
Qurayzah and advised them not to trust the
confederation of the Quraysh and the Ghatafan. He
harangued them that if the confederate won the war
they might take the land of the B. Qurayzah as a
booty; should Muhammad win, then the confederates
would abandon the B. Qurayzah, leaving them to defend
themselves against the formidable Muslims.

Then Nuaym advised the B. Qurayzah to secure hostages
from the Quraysh and Ghatafan as a security for their
pledge of assistance against Muhammad. B. Qurayzah
leaders pondered over what Nuyam had said and found
that to be very credible.

Meanwhile, after talking to the B. Qurayzah Jews,
Nuaym went straight to the Quraysh and the Ghatafan;
announced that he had abandoned Islam and Muhammad and
told them that the B. Qurayzah Jews had regretted at
what they had done and was now in league with
Muhammad. Nuaym further added that the B. Qurayzah had
offered Muhammad a pledge that whatever hostages they
took from the Quraysh and the Ghatafan, they would
send them to Muhammad for beheading and Muhammad would
be too pleased to execute the hostages. This news
unnerved the Meccans as they believed every word of
what Nuaym had said. Suspicion now arose in their
minds regarding the pledge of the B. Qurayzah, and
they decided, as per advice of the double agent Nuaym
to refrain from dispatching any hostage that B.
Qurayzah might demand from them.

On the eve of the Jewish Sabbath day (that is, Friday
evening, Saturday being the Jewish Sabbath), Abu
Sufyan sent Ikrimah b. Abi Jahl with a group of men to
B. Qurayzah to ask the Jews to come out and to
assemble to fight on the next day (i.e., on Saturday).
On this, the Jews declined to fight on their Sabbath
day, claiming that on previous occasions when they
broke that tradition, the Jews were converted into
monkeys and boars for fighting on the Sabbath day.
Moreover, they demanded hostages from the Quraysh and
the Ghatafan as a pre-condition to fight Muhammad.

When this news of demand for hostages was brought to
Abu Sufyan and the leaders of Ghatafan, they were
simply amazed at the veracity of what Nuaym had
already told them. The confederates then decided not
to offer a single hostage to B. Qurayzah and this
decision was communicated to the B. Qurayzah Jews.
Having heard the verdict of the confederates, the B.
Qurayzah Jews were now convinced that the Quraysh and
the Ghatafan were playing tricks with them. The Jews
decided not to join in the fighting, unless hostages
are secured from the confederates and forwarded their
decision to the Quraysh and the Ghatafan.

The allied forces were now greatly disheartened. Their
provisions were running short. Their plan to attack
the Muslims from the rear of city with the help of B.
Qurayza was now in doubt. Their camels and horses were
dying daily in numbers. To add more to their
adversity, the weather, too, was unkind to them. The
cold, wind and rain became merciless on their
unprotected camps. The storm became a hurricane,
overturning their cooking pots and sweeping away their
tents. They took the fury of weather as an evil omen
and started to flee for their lives. With so many
troublesome incidents, Abu Sufiyan suddenly decided to
break up the camp and retreat. The withdrawal was led
by the Quraysh, followed by the Ghatafan and their
allies. Abu Sufyan leaped on his camel and led away.
Soon, the entire Quraysh army took the road to Mecca
by way of Uhud. In the morning not one of them was
left in sight. As usual, Muhammad claimed that Gabriel
had brought the severe storm and caused the Meccan
confederates to flee. Ibn Sa’d writes that when
Gabriel met Muhammad, he (Gabriel) said to him: “O! be
happy.”. An oracle (33:9) descended from Allah
confirming His divine intervention by casting terror
in the heart of the infidels through the tempestuous
wind and the biting cold.

However, the real reason the Meccans abandoned the
siege was different. It was the ensuing of the month
of Dzul Qaedah, the first month of the three
consecutive months of the Arab tradition of cessation
of hostilities-the Meccans had to go back and attend
the pilgrims that would soon start arriving at Mecca.

The news of the disunity between the confederates and
the B. Qurayzah soon reached the ears of Muhammad, and
he sought the assistance of a spy to observe the
activities of his enemy, promising him paradise or
booty should the spy returned on time. On this
enticement, a Hadith from Sahih Bukhari is quoted
here:

Volume 9, Book 93, Number 555:

   Narrated Abu Huraira:

   Allah's Apostle said, "Allah guarantees (the
person who carries out Jihad in His Cause and
nothing compelled him to go out but Jihad in
His Cause and the belief in His Word) that He
will either admit him into Paradise
(Martyrdom) or return him with reward or booty
he has earned to his residence from where he
went out."

Muhammad had to promise paradise to his spy as none
other had volunteered to go to the Quraysh camp and
bring back their news. During this period, fear hunger
and cold had engulfed the Muslims and they were not in
a mood for a fight. In fact, when no one volunteered,
Muhammad picked the said spy himself and commanded him
to engage in information gathering. The spy went out
and saw Allah’s helpers (i.e., angels) punishing the
Quraysh and the Ghatafan with lashing wind and bitter
cold.

The spy of Muhammad observed the departure of the Abu
Sufyan and his confederates and brought the good news
to Muhammad. Muhammad was greatly relieved at the
departure of his enemy; the Muslim army became joyful
and in the morning, broke up their camp and returned
to their homes. Muhammad refrained from pursuing the
retreating Quraysh army for, he feared that a
confrontation with the Quraysh in the open would not
be to his advantage. He soon told the Muslims that he
had Allah’s message to attack the B. Qurayza, claiming
that Gabriel came to him in the appearance of Dihya,
the Kalbite. Immediately, Muhammad sent Bilal to
announce the new call throughout the town for the new
battle.

Once the Battle of the Trench was over Muhammad vowed
to be aggressive and offensive, to make attack and not
to defend. Here is a Hadith from Sahih Bukhari that
clearly indicates Islam is truly a religion of offense
and not defense:

Volume 5, Book 59, Number 435:

Narrated Sulaiman bin Surd:

On the day of Al-Ahzab (i.e. clans) the Prophet said,
(After this battle) we will go to attack them (i.e.
the infidels) and they will not come to attack us."

[Please note: This Hadith cannot be found in the
sanitized, summarized version of Sahih Al-Bukhari;
however you may read this Hadith in the Internet
version of Original Sahih Bukhari]

Chapter Ten

‘LET (Lashkar-e-Toiba) volunteers neither shave nor
cut their hair and they are taught to kill
ritualistically, by beheading or slitting of
throat’---A LET member

Terror Thiry-three

The Genocide of Bani Qurayzah Jews by
Muhammad-February-March, 627

After Muhammad left the battlefield of the trench in
the morning he returned to Medina, and while he was
washing his head in the house of Umm Salamah, one of
his wives, Gabriel visited him at noon and informed
him that the battle was not over yet, and that Allah
commanded him (Muhammad) to besiege the B. Qurayzah.
He claimed that Gabriel came in the form of Dhiyah b.
Khalifah al-Kalbi, a handsome and a rich merchant of
Medina. Gabriel also declared his unflinching support
for Muhammad in this operation. It is claimed that
Gabriel arrived riding a horse and wearing a cloth of
gold turban.

After listening to the instruction of Gabriel, Muhammad
abandoned the noon (Asr) prayer and commanded
his Jihadists to march straight to the territory of B.
Qurayzah, Ali being sent ahead of the rest. Muhammad
informed his followers that during war, prayer can be
omitted, as fighting during this time was more
incumbent than praying On his way, Ali heard people
talking foul about Muhammad and hurling insult at him.
A disturbed Ali hastened back to Muhammad and informed
him of what he had heard what people were saying about
Muhammad. Muhammad consoled Ali by saying that the
people dared not utter any derogatory remark about him
should he (i.e., Muhammad) be personally present
amongst them. This pleased Ali and he went back to his
mission. In the evening, the Muslim soldiers marched
toward the fortress of Bani Qurayza that lay two or
three miles to the south-east of Medina. Muhammad rode
an ass, while an army of three thousand Muslims, with
thirty-six horses followed him. A tent in the compound
of the mosque in Medina was also pitched where Sa’d b.
Muadh took shelter to recuperate from his painful
wound (see Terror 32).

When Muhammad was near the fortress of the B. Qurayzah
Jews, he called them by yelling, ‘you brothers of
apes.’ This is elucidated in the Qur’an in verses
2:65, 5:60 and 7:166, where Allah says that He turned
the Jews in to apes. Thus, as far as Islam goes, the
Jews are still considered as apes, no exaggeration; it
is a decree by Allah, and Muhammad had confirmed this
in the operation for B. Qurayzah. Ibn Sa’d writes:
Muhammad said, “O brothers of monkeys and pigs! Fear
me, fear me.”

Not being satisfied with his vocabulary of simple
‘swearing’ language, Muhammad asked his poet friend
Hassan b. Thabit to make verbal abuse of the Jews
through poems. Here is a Hadith from Sahih Bukhari to
describe the mindset of the messenger of Allah:

Volume 5, Book 59, Number 449:

   Narrated Al-Bara:

   The Prophet said to Hassan, "Abuse them (with
your poems), and Gabriel is with you (i.e,
supports you)." (Through another group of sub
narrators) Al-Bara bin Azib said, "On the day
of Quraiza's (besiege), Allah's Apostle said
to Hassan bin Thabit, 'Abuse them (with your
poems), and Gabriel is with you (i.e. supports
you).' "

Despite extreme provocation by Muhammad B. Qurayzah
Jews were patient and courteous with Muhammad, and
addressed him as Abu al-Qasim (father of Qasim,
Muhammad’s dead son). This is the conversation that
took place between Muhammad and the B. Qurayzah Jews
as written by Tabari:

‘When the Messenger of God had approached their
fortresses, he said: “You brothers of apes! Has God
shamed you and sent down his retribution on you?” they
said, “Abu al-Qasim, you have never been one to act
impetuously.”’

The Muslims then attacked the Jews with archery but to
no avail. One Muslim approached the fortress
carelessly and was killed by a Jewess by casting down
a millstone on him. Muhammad kept the siege on causing
a great distress among the besieged Jews. Nonetheless,
Muhammad was bent on a bloody revenge and refused to
negotiate with the Jews.

After twenty-five days of siege, the Jews grew
desperate, exhausted and terrified at their future.
They were on the verge of starvation. It is claimed
that Allah, through Muhammad’s terrorism, cast terror
into their hearts. Among the Jews was Huyayy b. Akhtab
(see Terror 32) who, as a fulfillment of his pledge to
be with B. Qurayzah through thick and thin, did not
escape with the Quraysh and the Ghatafan, but stayed
with the B. Qurayzah Jews. Unable to bear the
desperate situation of the Jewish women and children,
the B. Qurayzah leader, Ka’b b.Asad proposed that the
Jews should accept Islam to save their lives. Almost
all the Jews declined to forsake the religion of their
forefathers. A distraught Ka’b proposed that they
should kill their women and children, then, all the
men could go out and fight Muhammad without any
impediment. But the Jews did not want to kill their
dearest ones with their own hands. It was impossible
for them to commit such act, as they feared that it
was meaningless to live without their wives and
children. Ka’b then proposed an attack on Muhammad the
next day which was a Jewish Sabbath day (ie Saturday).
The Jews flatly declined to engage in any warfare
during the Sabbath.

When the Jews could not decide on their fate
themselves, they sent a message to Muhammad, asking
that Abu Lubabah b. Abd al-Mundhir, their confidante
from B. Aws, be sent to them for a discussion and
advice. As soon as Lubabah arrived in the Jewish
quarter, the weeping women and children of the Jews
rushed out and grabbed him hoping that he could plead
for mercy for them. Abu Lubabah was filled with pity
and compassion for them. When asked what Muhammad
would do with them should they decide to surrender,
Abu Lubabah indicated through sign language that
Muhammad had slaughter in mind and that he (Abu
Lubabah) could do nothing about it.

Tabari writes:

‘When they saw him (i.e Abu Lubabah), the men rose to
meet him, and the women and children rushed to grab
hold of him, weeping before him, so that he felt pity
for them. They said to him, “Abu Lubabah, do you think
that we should submit to Muhammad’s judgment”? “Yes”,
he said, but he pointed with his hand to his throat,
that it would be slaughter.”’

Haykal writes that the Jews thought that the former
allies from al-Aws tribe would give them some
protection and if they were to remove themselves, to
Adhriat in al Sham, Muhammad would have no objection
to letting them go. So, the Banu Qurayzah sent the
proposal to evacuate their territory and to remove
themselves to Adhriat. Muhammad flatly rejected their
proposal and insisted on their abiding by his
judgment.

Having indicated by sign language what Muhammad had in
mind for the Jews, Abu Lubabah felt guilty that he had
broken his promise of secrecy with Muhammad. To atone
for his ‘misdeed’ he went straight to the mosque and
bound himself with ropes to one of the pillars. This
pillar is known as the ‘pillar of repentance’ or the
‘pillars of Abu Lubabah’. Allah expressed His
displeasure with Abu Lubabah’s conduct through verse
8:27.

When Muhammad heard of what Abu Lubabah had done, he
waited for Allah to forgive him (Abu Lubabah).

Abu Lubabah remained tied with the pillar for six
nights. His wife used to untie him for prayers. Allah
promptly forgave Abu Lubaba in verse 9:104. So,
Muhammad went to him during a morning prayer and set
him free.

Finding no choice, in the morning, the crestfallen B.
Qurayzah Jews surrendered to Muhammad for his
judgment. The male Jews were chained and kept in the
fortress till a decision was made about their fate.
The B. Aws people were on good terms with the B.
Qurayzah Jews. They pleaded with Muhammad for mercy
and a fair judgment for their Jewish allies. On this,
Muhammad proposed that the judgment be passed by Sa’d
b Muadh who was the B. Aws leader, recuperating from
his wound in a tent nearby Medina. B. Aws and the B.
Qurayzah both agreed on this proposal of Muhammad,
hoping to have some mercy from Sa’d b. Muadh. Muhammad
dispatched some B. Aws men to bring Sa’d to deliver
his judgment. Riding a donkey Sa’d arrived at the site
where all the seven or eight hundred Jewish men and
many B. Aws people were standing to listen to his
judgment. Their women and children, stricken with
terror waited for the pronouncement of Sad’s verdict.
Many B. Aws people requested Sa’d to deal with the
Jews with leniency and mercy.

Sa’d then asked his people if they would accept
whatever judgment he pronounced. The crowd agreed.

Then Muhammad asked Sa’d b. Muadh to pass his
judgment. Sa’d replied, “I pass judgment on them that
the men shall be killed, the property divided, and the
children and women made captives.” Everyone was
shocked at this bloody decree except Muhammad. He
praised Sa’d for proclaiming a solemn judgment of the
Almighty. He was cold and unmoved and termed Sa’d’s
judgment as fair and said, “You have passed judgment
on them with the judgment of God and the judgment of
His Messenger.” This statement by Muhammad clearly
shows that he wanted to murder these Jews in cold
blood without any compunction or mercy. Sahih Bukhari
records this incidence thus:

Volume 5, Book 58, Number 148:

   Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:

   Some people (i.e. the Jews of Bani bin
Quraiza) agreed to accept the verdict of Sad
bin Muadh so the Prophet sent for him (i.e.
Sad bin Muadh). He came riding a donkey, and
when he approached the Mosque, the Prophet
said, "Get up for the best amongst you." or
said, "Get up for your chief." Then the
Prophet said, "O Sad! These people have agreed
to accept your verdict." Sad said, "I judge
that their warriors should be killed and their
children and women should be taken as
captives." The Prophet said, "You have given a
judgment similar to Allah's Judgment (or the
King's judgment)."

[Please note: This Hadith cannot be found in the
sanitized, summarized version of Sahih Al-Bukhari;
however, it can be read in the Internet version of
Original Sahih Al-Bukhari]

The women and children were then separated from their
husbands, others were put under the care of Abdullah,
a renegade Jew. All the goods and possessions of the
B. Qurayzah Jews, their camels and flocks were all
brought as spoils of war to be distributed amongst the
Muslims. The wine and fermented liquors were thrown
away.

After Sa’d b. Muadh passed the judgment of slaughter,
the B. Qurayzah Jews were brought down from their
dwellings; the men were handcuffed behind their backs
their women and children having already been
separated. They were placed under the charge of
Mohammad ibn Maslama, the assassin of Ka’b ibn Ashraf,
to be despatched to Medina to the compound of the
daughter of another Muslim fanatic, al-Harith before
their execution in batches. A long trench was dug in
the marketplace of Medina. The Prisoners were then
taken there, made to kneel down and beheaded in a
group of five or six. Muhammad was personally present
to witness this slaughter. Ali and Zubayr cut off the
heads of the Jews in front of Muhammad. Sourcing from
Al-Waqidi, Tabari writes:

“…the messenger of God commanded that furrows should
be dug in the ground for the B. Qurayzah. Then he sat
down, and Ali and al-Zubayr began cutting off their
heads in his presence.” Ibn Ishaq writes that they
were taken in groups to Muhammad for beheading in
front of him.

Tabari further writes:

‘The messenger of God went out into the marketplace of
Medina and had trenches dug in it; then he sent for
them and had them beheaded in those trenches. They
were brought out to him in groups. Among them were the
enemy of God, Huyayy b. Akhtab, and Ka’b b. Asad, the
head of the tribe. They numbered 600 or 700-the
largest estimate says they were between 800 and 900.
As they were being taken in groups to the Messenger of
God, they said to Ka’b b. Asad, “Ka’b, what do you
understand. Do you not see that the summoner does not
discharge [anyone] and that those of you who are taken
away do not come back? By God, it is death!” the
affair continued until the Messenger of God had
finished with them.’

Sir William Muir describes this extremely grotesque
scene thus:

‘The men were penned up in a closed yard, while graves
or trenches were being dug for them in the chief
marketplace of the city. When these were ready,
Mahomet, himself a spectator of the tragedy, gave
command that the captives should be brought forth in
companies of five or six at a time. Each company was
made to sit down by the brink of the trench destined
for its grave, and there beheaded. Party by party they
were thus led out, and butchered in cold blood, till
the whole were slain. One woman alone was put to
death; it was she who threw the millstone from the
battlements.’

A most pathetic and heart-wrenching incidence took
place when Huyayy b. Akhtab, the banished B. Nadir
Jewish leader was taken to the execution field. Tabari
describes his execution this way:

‘Huyayy b. Akhtab, the enemy of God, was brought. He
was wearing a rose-colored suit of clothes that had
torn all over with fingertip-sized holes so that it
would not be taken as booty from him, and his hands
were bound to his neck with a rope. When he looked at
the Messenger of God, he said, “By God, I do not blame
myself for being hostile to you, but whomever God
forsakes is forsaken.” Then he turned to the people
and said: “People, there is no injury in God’s
command. It is the book of God, His decree, and a
battlefield of great slaughter ordained against the
Children of Israel. Then he sat down and was
beheaded.’

Only one woman of the B. Qurayzah was killed. She was
the wife Hasan al-Qurazi and was friendly with Aisha.
Aisha narrated her story of beheading thus:

‘Only one of their women was killed. By God, she was
by me, talking with me and laughing unrestraintedly
while the Messenger of God was killing their men in
the marketplace, when suddenly a mysterious voice
called out her name, saying, “Where is so and so?” She
said, “I shall be killed.” “Why?” I asked. She said, A
misdeed that I committed.” She was taken away and
beheaded. (Aisha used to say: I shall never forget my
wonder at her cheerfulness and much laughter, even
when she knew that she would be killed.).’

This incident is also recorded in a Sahi (authentic)
Hadith of Abu Dawud:

Book 14, Number 2665:

Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin:

No woman of Banu Qurayzah was killed except one. She
was with me, talking and laughing on her back and
belly (extremely), while the Apostle of Allah
(peace_be_upon_him) was killing her people with the
swords. Suddenly a man called her name: Where is
so-and-so? She said: I I asked: What is the matter
with you? She said: I did a new act. She said: The man
took her and beheaded her. She said: I will not forget
that she was laughing extremely although she knew that
she would be killed.

As told before, this unlucky Jewish woman killed one
Muslim soldier by casting a millstone on his head
while the Messenger of Allah besieged the B. Qurayzah
fortress.

There is another poignant story of a very old Jewish
man named Az-Zabir. Az-Zabir saved the life of a
Muslim convert, Thabit b. Qays in the Bu’ath war. Now,
when Az-Zabir was about to be beheaded Thabit
requested Muhammad to save the life of this old man
and his family as a return to his favor. Muhammad
reluctantly agreed to spare this Jewish man and his
family members. Az-Zabir then asked Thabit b. Qays
about the fate of the Jewish leaders such as Ka’b b.
Asad and Huayy b. Akhtab, as he preferred to die
rather than to live without them. Az-Zabir said, “Then
I ask you for the sake of the favor I once did for you
to join me to my kinsmen, for by God there is no good
in living after them. I will not wait patiently for
God, not even [the time needed] to take the bucket of
a watering trough, until I meet my dear ones.”

So Thabit brought him forward, and he was beheaded.
When Abu Bakr heard what that old man said just before
his execution, he said, “He will meet them, by God, in
the Gehenna, there to dwell forever and forever.”

Muhammad commanded that all those Jewish men with
puberty hair were to be killed. One Jewish boy took
refuge with a Muslim woman, Salma bt. Qays. She
requested Muhammad that mercy be shown to this Jewish
boy. It is said that Muhammad spared his life. Here is
a Hadith from Sunaan Abu Dawud on this:

Book 38, Number 4390:

   Narrated Atiyyah al-Qurazi:

   I was among the captives of Banu Qurayzah.
They (the Companions) examined us, and those
who had begun to grow hair (pubes) were
killed, and those who had not were not killed.
I was among those who had not grown hair.

Please note that the narrator of this Hadith, Atiyyah
al-Qurazi, was probably the very young brother of
Hasan al-Qurazi, the executed Jew.

Having beheaded all the adult males of the B. Qurayzah
Jews, the Prophet of mercy now busied himself with the
distribution of the Jewish booty. He divided the
wealth, the wives and the children of the B. Qrayzah
Jews among his followers. Needless to say he did not
miss his Khums (one-fifth of booty) that was reserved
for him.

The booty rules were changed slightly. A horseman
received three shares: two shares for the horse and
one share for the rider. A foot Jihadist, who had no
horse, received one share. It was the first booty in
which shares were allotted and from which the Khums
was deducted. This simplified rule on booty (fai) was
followed in the later plunders.

There were thirty-six cavalry in this raid. If a man
had more than two horses he could claim shares only
for two horses.

[Please note: Fai is a booty taken from a country
which submits to Islam without resistance.

After executing all the adult male Jews, Muhammad sent
Sa’d b. Zayd al-Ansari with some captives (women and
children) from the B. Qurayzah to Najd to sell them in
the slave market. While we do not have an accurate
price of a female slave during that time, Ibn Sa’d
writes that Khadijah, Muhammad’s first wife, bought
her slave, Zayd b. Haritha, (who would later become
Muuhammad’s adopted son), for four hundred (400)
Dirhams at the slave market of Ukaz, Mecca. In Sunaan
Abu Dawud we read that the price of young slave (male
or female) varied from five hundred dirhams to eight
hundred (800) dirhams i.e, US$ 2,5000 to US$ 4000 (see
Sunaan Abu Dawud hadis numbers, 3946 and 4563). So a
reasonable price of a slave as US$ 2,500 in to-day’
money will be quite a realistic assumption. Multiply
this with an approximate number of women and children,
say about one thousand (1,000), and we get a sum of
US$ 2,500,000 (yes, a cool two and a half million US
Dollars). This was a huge wind fall for the terrorists
of those days. With the money raised through this
slave-trading Muhammad bought more horses and arms.
Among the captive women, he found a very pretty,
youthful lass by the name Rayhanh bt. ‘Amr b. Khunafah
and took her as his concubine. It is said that when
Muhammad offered to make her his wife by embracing
Islam, she declined. She preferred to remain a sex
slave to becoming a Muslim.

She said, “Messenger of God, rather leave me in your
possession [as a concubine], for it is easier for me
and for you.” Muhammad was quite grieved when she
rejected Islam but preferred to remain a Jew. Some
biographers write that Rayhana eventually accepted
Islam.

A telling description of Muhammad’s cruelty and lust
for young women is provided by Sir Willima Muir thus:

‘Having sated his revenge, and drenched the
market-place with the blood of eight hundred victims,
and having given command for the earth to be smoothed
over their remains, Mahomet returned from the horrid
spectacle to solace himself with the charms of Rihana,
whose husband and all whose male relatives had just
perished in the massacre. He invited her to be his
wife, but she declined; and chose to remain (as
indeed, having refused marriage, she had no
alternative) his slave or concubine. She also declined
the summons to conversion, and continued in the Jewish
faith, at which the Prophet was much concerned. It is
said, however, that she afterwards embraced Islam. She
lived with Mahomet till his death.’

After the delivery of his judgment, Sa’d was taken
back on his donkey to his tent.. His wound now became
fatal. He was now lying in his deathbed. Muhammad
quickly went to visit him. He prayed to Allah to save
Sa’d’s life. However, Allah did not answer his prayer
this time. Soon, Sa’d died. His corpse was carried to
his home and after the forenoon prayer he was buried.
His bier was very light to carry. Muhammad claimed
that angels carried Sa’d’s bier.

Gabriel told Muhammad that Sad B. Muadh was already in
heaven; claiming further that Allah’s throne shook
when Sad b. Muadh died. We read in Sahih Bukhari:

Volume 5, Book 58, Number 147:

   Narrated Jabir:

   I heard the Prophet saying, "The Throne (of
Allah) shook at the death of Sad bin Muadh."
Through another group of narrators, Jabir
added, "I heard the Prophet : saying, 'The
Throne of the Beneficent shook because of the
death of Sad bin Muadh."

What did Muhammad do with the appropriated lands of
the Jews of B.Quaynuqa, B. Nadir and B. Qurayzah? He
used the plundered of lands of B. Qurayzah and B.
Nadir to return the gifts (debt) he received from the
Ansars of Medina; he gave his share of the booty to
Umm Ayman, the slave woman who nursed him in his
infancy. Here is a Hadith on this from Sahih Muslim:

Book 019, Number 4376:

   It has been narrated by Anas that (after his
migration to Medina) a person placed at the
Prophet's (may peace be upon him) disposal
some date-palms growing on his land until the
lands of Quraiza and Nadir were conquered.
Then he began to return to him whatever he had
received. (In this connection) my people told
me to approach the Messenger of Allah (may
peace be upon him) and ask from him what his
people had given him or a portion thereof, but
the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him)
had bestowed those trees upon Umm Aiman. So I
came to the Prophet (may peace be upon him)
and he gave them (back) to me. Umm Aiman
(also) came (at this time). She put the cloth
round my neck and said: No, by Allah, we will
not give to, you what he has granted to me.
The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said:
Umm Aiman, let him have them and for you are
such and such trees instead. But she said: By
Allah, there is no god besides Him. No, never!
The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him)
continued saying: (You will get) such and
such. until he had granted her ten times or
nearly ten times more (than the original
gift).

Muhammad now became militarily strong and a much
feared warlord in the Arabian Peninsula. Needless to
say, all this was the fruits of his terror tactics.

Click here to learn the Islamic version of the
massacre of B. Qurayzah Jews:

http://forum.bismikaallahuma.org/viewtopic.php?t=956

Chapter Eleven

‘You live here, but I live among the infidels. Please
let me wash off some of my sin’---Ziad al-Jarrah

Terror Thirty-four

Raid Against al-Qurata at Dariyaah by Muhammad ibn
Maslama--July, 627CE

Readers might remember the name of Muhammad ibn
Maslama. He was the hired killer of Ka’b b. al-Ashraf,
the Jewish poet (see Terror 17, CH. 5). Hitherto,
Muhammad b. Maslama was a very special person to
Muhammad, the messenger of Allah. Whenever. Muhammad
needed to do covert assassination; he (Muhammad ibn
Maslama) was the trusted person to accomplish such an
act of murder. Having been satisfied with his
impeccable service for Islam (via terror), Muhammad,
the messenger of Allah, decided to assign him with a
much more challenging and rewarding job, i.e.,
committing plunder or Ghanimah.

So he dispatched Muhammad ibn Maslama, the
professional killer, at the head of thirty Jihadists
to surround and to plunder al-Qarata, a branch of
Kilab tribe that inhabited a place called Dariyyah,
about fifty or sixty miles from Medina. Muhammad b.
Maslama marched by night, concealing during day, and
when he arrived at Dariyyah, he attacked the al-Qurata
tribe suddenly, creating panic and terror amongst the
people there. During this raid the Muslims killed ten
people while others fled offering no resistance. The
booty was enormous: one hundred and fifty camels
(around US$ 52,000) and three thousand goats (around
US$ 105,000) plus the household goods (unspecified
sum, probably around US$ 50,000). Muhammad ibn
Maslamah continued this looting for nineteen days;
then he returned to Medina with the booty. Muhammad,
the messenger of Allah took his share (Khums,
one-fifth) and distributed the rest to his ardent
companions. A camel was made equivalent to ten goats.
The Muslims also brought a prisoner who was a disciple
of Musaylamah, another claimant of messenger of Allah
and Muhammad’s bitter competitor. Muhammad, the
messenger of Allah accused this prisoner of plotting
to kill him in collaboration with Musaylamah. It is
stated that the prisoner later accepted Islam.

Terror Thirty-five

First Raid Against B. Thalabah towards Dhu al-Qassah
by Muhammad ibn Maslama-July, 627CE

After a few successful raids, Muhammad’s herd of
camels greatly increased by the plunder. He sent this
large herd of camels out to graze in the vicinity of
Hayfa, a place seven miles from Medina which was lush
with green pastures. Due to the continuous drought
prevailing in the adjoining areas during this time, B.
Thalabah, a section of the Ghatafan tribe, was greatly
tempted to steal from Muhammad’s herd. He suspected
mischievousness from these people and sent his trusted
lieutenant, Muhammad b. Maslama with ten followers to
plunder the vicinity of Dhu al-Qassah of B. Thalabah.
It was a night’s journey from Medina. B. Thalabah
people were already aware of the impending attack; so
they lay in wait for the Muslims, and when Muhammad b.
Maslama arrived at the site, B. Thalabah, with one
hundred men attacked them while the Muslims were
making preparation to sleep; and after a brief
resistance killed all of Muhammad b. Maslama’s men.
Muhammad b. Maslama himself was severely wounded in
his ankle; he could not move. He was left in the field
for dead. A Muslim who happened to pass that way found
him and assisted him to return to Medina.

Terror Thirty-six

Second Raid against B. Thalabah at Dhu al-Qassah by
Ubayda b. al-Jarrah-August, 627CE

When Muhammad, the messenger of Allah learned of this
incident (Terror 35), he immediately dispatched an
army of forty well-mounted soldiers under the
leadership of Abu Ubayda b. al-Jarrah to punish the
offenders. This plundering team arrived there (Dhu
al-Qassah) just before dawn. Immediately upon their
arrival, they raided the inhabitants who quickly fled
to the mountains. The Muslims took their cattle,
clothes and captured one man. They brought the booty
to Muhammad. After taking his due share, he
distributed the booty to his men. The captured man
embraced (or forced to) Islam and Muhammad released
him.

Terror Thirty-seven

Raid Against B. Asad at al-Ghamr by Ukkash b.
Mihsan-August, 627CE

During this period, Muhammad sent out forty Jihadists
under the leadership of Ukkash b. Mihsan to plunder
the neighborhood of al-Ghamr (towards Syrian
frontier), a watering place belonging to B. Asad b.
Khuzaymah. When Ukkash arrived at the site of pillage
he found that the enemy had already fled. The
Jihadists captured their cattle, including two hundred
camels (worth around US$ 70,000) and brought them to
Medina. They also captured a spy whom they set free.

Terror Thirty-eight

Second Attack on Banu Lihyan at Ghiran by Muhammad
-September, 627CE

Six months after the massacre of B. Qurayza, Muhammad
went out to take revenge on the B. Lihyan people for
the killing of his men, namely, Khubayb b. Adi and his
companion, Zayd b. al-Dathinnah (see Terror 25, CH. 7)
at al-Rajii. After the stalemate at the battle of the
Trench and after the ethnic cleansing of B. Qurayzah,
Muhammad felt he was militarily strong enough to exact
retribution to this tribe. He selected two hundred men
on camels and twenty horses.To trick and to to make a
sudden and surprise attack on the enemy, he pretended
to be heading north, towards Syria. After proceeding
north for a short distance and when he felt secure
that neither the Quraysh nor their neighbours were
aware of his intentions, he made a sudden turn to the
left and followed the direct route to Mecca leading
him to the town of Ghiran, the abode of B. Lihyan. The
B. Lihyan people were already on alert, and when they
saw the Muslim army, they took up secure positions on
mountain tops, taking their cattle with them, in order
to confront Muhammad’s army. Muhammad sent some people
to search for the tribe of Lihyan, but they could not
find their trace.

Having failed to attack the B. Lihyan by shock and
terror, Muhammad felt frustrated. In order not to
waste this trip, he thought of scaring the Meccans by
approaching Mecca and showing his newly found military
might. So he marched out with two hundred of his men
and halted at Usfan. At Usfan, he dispatched two
horsemen towards Mecca. They went up to Kuraul Ghamin
and then returned back at Usfan. Then he tripped back
to Medina. Ibn Sa’d writes that Muhammad sent Abu Bakr
with ten horsemen towards Mecca to terrorize them (the
Meccans).

Terror Thirty-nine

Raid on Muhammad’s Milch Camels at al-Ghabah by Uyana
b. Hisn-September, 627CE

A few days after Muhammad returned Medina from the
unsuccessful raid on B. Lihyan, a band of armed men of
Ghatafan led by Uyanah b. Hisn raided the outskirts of
the city; seized twenty milch camels of Muhammad that
were grazing in the area of al-Ghabah. They also
killed the shepherd and took his wife as a captive. A
Muslim, called Amr ibn al Akwa, saw this plunder and
the carrying away of booty. He shot arrows at them and
called for help. Muhammad soon heard his call and
alerted the people of Medina.

Terror Forty

The Second Raid on Ghatafan at Dhu Qarad by Sa’d b.
Zayd/Muhammad-September, 627CE

When Muhammad heard of the raid on his camel herd at
al-Gabah by Uyanah b. Hisn, he immediately sent a
battery of five hundred cavalrymen under the
leadership of Sa’d b. Zayd to search and finish off
the perpetrators. He told them that he would meet them
later. The Muslim soldiers were more in number than
the bandits. They marched out and found the bandits
resting in a valley at Dhu Qarad. After a day or two,
Muhammad went out with further men and halted at the
mountain of Dhu Qarad where the rest of the Muslims
joined him. The Muslims then attacked the armed B.
Ghatafan and slew several of the marauders and
recovered half of the plundered camels. In the battle
that ensued, Uyanah’s son, Abd al-Rahman was killed.
The Muslims lost only one man.He was the son of Abu
Dhar Ghifari, one of the most trusted lieutenants of
Muhammad. Muhammad’s army chased the attackers as far
as towards Khaybar and rescued the camels and the
woman. They also took as booty, the weapons from the
bandits.

Later, Muhammad stayed at Dhu Qarad for a day and a
night, and then the Muslims returned to Medina with
the looted camels.

Terror Forty-one

Plunder of B. Sulaym at Nakhl by Zayd ibn
Haritha-September, 627CE

Zayd ibn Haritha was the freed slave and the adopted
son of Muhammad. Muhammad later married Zayd’s wife
Zaynab. It was time to reward this adopted son with
booty. So Muhammad entrusted Zayd b Haritha to lead a
plundering team at Jamum, near Nakhl. He captured a
woman who led him to the site of B. Sulaym. Zayd’s
team then raided this place and captured cattle,
sheep, camels and took many B. Sulaym as captives.
Among the captives was the husband of the woman who
led the Muslims to the plundering site. Zayd brought
his booty to Muhammad. When Muhammad heard the entire
story he granted the woman her freedom and released
her husband, presumably for assisting the Muslims in
the pillage.

Terror Forty-two

Plunder of the Quraysh at al-Is by Zayd ibn
Haritha-September, 627CE

After the successful plunder of B. Sulaym by
Muhammad’s adopted son, Zayd ibn Haritha, Muhammad
thought of entrusting him with a far richer looting
operation. Muhammad had already received information
that a highly rich caravan of the Quraysh was on its
return journey from Syria, and he did not want to
waste time to plunder it. So, in the autumn of 627
Muhammad dispatched Zayd with an army of one hundred
and seventy horsemen towards al-Is, an important
trading center to intercept this Quraysh caravan. The
journey was four nights march from Medina. The Muslim
plunderers seized the caravan and looted it entirely.
Needless to say, it was a highly successful raid and
the Muslim army returned with a large amount of booty
including plenty of silver belonging to Safwan b
Umayyah as well as plenty of captives.

Among the prisoners was Abu al-As, the son-in-law of
Muhammad, the husband of Zaynab, Muhammad’s eldest
daughter. Abu al-As was the nephew of Khadija
(Muhammad’s first wife) and a prosperous trader in
Mecca. When Muhammad received the prophet hood, Abu
al-As declined to embrace Islam. But he also refused
to divorce Zaynab at the insistence of the Quraysh,
for, his love for Zaynab was great. The love was
mutual and Muhammad was quite happy about it. When
Muhammad migrated to Medina, Zaynab, with her husband,
Abu al-As remained at Mecca. In the battle of Badr II
Abu al-As was taken as a prisoner. Zaynab sent a
necklace of Khadijah to Muhammad as a ransom for the
release of her husband. His story has already been
told (see Terror 9, CH. 3).

It was after three or four years that Abu al-As was
caught again as a prisoner at al-Is. When the party of
prisoners arrived at Medina, Abu al-As was given the
permission to meet, at night, with his ex-wife Zaynab
for her protection. Then he rejoined the other
prisoners. In the morning when the Muslims gathered at
the mosque for prayer, Zaynab called out loudly that
she had given protection to Abu al-As. Muhammad agreed
that she could treat Abu al-As as an honored guest but
not as her husband. He appealed to the captors to
release Abu al-As along with his property, if they
wished. If not, then they could keep Abu al-As as
their booty. Abu al-As’ captors immediately agreed to
release him from their captivity. Abu al-As was
greatly moved by this generosity; returned to Mecca,
completed his affairs there, then returned to Medina
and accepted Islam. He then rejoined his wife Zaynab.
However, Zaynab died within a year after rejoining her
former husband---purportedly due to the illness
suffered as a result of her miscarriage.

Muhammad was greatly angered by the acts of the two
Quraysh, especially Habbar who manhandled his daughter
(Zaynab) during her attempt to escape from Mecca. He
gave the order that both of them be burned alive.
Later, at night he changed his mind and decided that
they should be put to death in the ordinary way, i.e.,
by beheading. Ali put one of the attackers, Huweirith,
to death when the Muslims captured Mecca.

Terror Forty-three

Third Raid on B. Thalabah at al-Taraf By Zayd b.
Haritha-October, 627CE

With two successful looting operations by Zayd b.
Haritha, Muhammad must have been very pleased with his
adopted son. So, he sent Zayd with fifteen men to
Al-Taraf, thirty-six miles from Medina to punish and
to plunder B. Thalabah once again (see Terror 35, 36
above). When this raid took place, the Bedouin tribe
of B. Thalabah fled. Zayd’s booty was twenty camels.
He spent four nights conducting this raid then
returned to Medina with the booty.

Terror Forty-four

Raid Against B. Judham at Hisma By Zayd b
Haritha-October, 627CE

In the Sirah (biography) of Muhammad we read that
after his signing of Hudaibiya peace treaty with the
Quraysh in Mecca, Muhammad took himself as the true
messenger of Allah. To prove his clout, he sent
several emissaries in a few neighboring countries,
inviting them to Islam. He sent Dhiyah b. Khalifah
al-Kalbi, one of his devoted followers on a mission to
the governor of Syria regarding some concession on the
commerce with the Roman province. In his epistle to
Heraclius, the Byzantine emperor, Muhammad wrote: “In
the name of God, the Merciful and compassionate. From
Muhammad, the Messenger of God, to Heraclius, the
ruler of the Romans. Peace to whoever follows right
guidance!

To proceed: submit yourself, and you shall be safe.
Submit yourself, and God shall give you your reward
twice over. But, if you turn away, the sin of the
Husbandmen shall be upon you.”

Despite Muhammad’s threat and insulting remarks, Dhiya
was graciously received and was presented with a dress
of honor. When, after finishing his trip to Syria,
Dhiya was returning to Medina with those expensive
gifts from the emperor; a group of bandit belonging to
B. Judham robbed him of everything when he reached
Hisma, a place on way to Syria and on the west of
Tabuk.

Dihya approached the neighbouring tribe (with whom he
was in good terms) for help. They attacked Bani
Judham, recovered the spoils and returned them to
Dhiya. When the news of this robbery by B. Judham
reached Muhammad, he immediately dispatched Zayd ibn
Haritha with five hundred men to punish them. The
Muslim army fought with B. Judham, killed several of
them, including their chief, Al-Hunayd ibn Arid and
his son. Zayd also killed another three men from
another clan of B.Judham. The Muslims captured their
women and children and plundered a great collection of
herds and flocks. Another leader of B. Judham who had
recently converted to Islam appealed to Muhammad to
release the living captives. Muhammad sent Ali to
release those captives there.

Terror Forty-five

First raid at Wadi al-Qura by Zayd b.
Haritha-November, 627CE

After so many successful terror operations by Zayd b.
Haritha, Muhammad rewarded him by appointing him the
Amir (ruler) of the area surrounding Wadi al-Qura.
This was an important oasis, about seven miles from
Medina, lying in the valley of Qura and on the route
to Dumat al-Jandal (Duma) and thence to Syria. It was
absolutely important that Muhammad established his
full military control on this region to secure his
position. Zayd set out with twelve men to survey this
area and to monitor the movements of enemies of
Muhammad, i.e., the unbelieving tribes inhabiting this
region.

However, the inhabitants in this area were unfriendly
to Zayd and Islam. They attacked the Muslims, killing
nine of them; the rest, including Zayd, managed to
escape and returned to Medina.

Chapter Twelve

‘Guns will make us powerful; butter will only make us
fat’---Hermann Goering (1893-1946)

Terror Forty-six

The Raid on Bani al-Mustaliq by Muhammad-December,
627CE

Bani al-Mustaliq was a branch of the Khozaa (Jewish)
tribe. Two months after Muhammad returned from Dhu
Qarad campaign (see Terror 40, CH. 11), Allah suddenly
told him that B. al-Mustaliq, under the leadership of
Haritha b. Abi Dirar was mobilizing forces against
him. Hitherto, B. al-Mustaliq people were friendly to
Muhammad. But, out of the blue, Muhammad spread the
rumour that B. al-Mustaliq were now joining with the
Quraysh to launch an attack against the Muslims. The
Muslims even killed a man from B. al-Mustaliq on
suspicion of spying for them. With this pretext
Muhammad rallied all the fighting men around him to
assail the B. al- Mustaliq. It is not clear why Allah
had suddenly changed His mind on B. al-Mustaliq.
However, the real reason was that B. al-Mustaliq were
a prosperous Jewish clan who had immense wealth and
property and Muhammad was eyeing to appropriate their
resources through plunder. So far, he was not
absolutely certain whether his terror campaign to this
peace-loving Jewish clan would be a success or not.
But when his ethnic cleaning of the Jews in Medina was
a great accomplishment, the Jews all around Medina
became fearful of his further attack on them. So B.
al-Mustaliq Jews took all precautionary measures to
prevent such an invasion on them. Naturally, they
sought help from other clans as well. Now, a
militarily strong Muhammad was poised to plunder this
Jewish community to further enrich his horde of
followers. We can infer this conclusion from the fact
that Muhammad gave no opportunity to this clan to
embrace Islam before facing ethnic cleansing-Islamic
style. On previous occasions, he abided by the rule
that the infidels be given a three days reprieve to
decide whether to accept Islam or face liquidation. In
fact, Muhammad was not at all keen on this prosperous
clan to take up Islam, as that meant no booty to his
ardent Jihadists. It was far better that B.
al-Mustaliq did not embrace Islam so that the Muslims
could pillage everything that they had through a
pre-emptive attack. Here is a passage from Sahih
Muslim on this raid:

Book 019, Number 4292:

   Ibn 'Aun reported: I wrote to Nafi' inquiring
from him whether it was necessary to extend
(to the disbelievers) an invitation to accept
(Islam) before m". ing them in fight. He wrote
(in reply) to me that it was necessary in the
early days of Islam. The Messenger of Allah
(may peace be upon him) made a raid upon Banu
Mustaliq while they were unaware and their
cattle were having a drink at the water. He
killed those who fought and imprisoned others.
On that very day, he captured Juwairiya bint
al-Harith. Nafi' said that this tradition was
related to him by Abdullah b. Umar who
(himself) was among the raiding troops.

Further confirmation of this sudden pillage is
referred in Sahih Bukhari:

Volume 3, Book 46, Number 717:

   Narrated Ibn Aun:

   I wrote a letter to Nafi and Nafi wrote in
reply to my letter that the Prophet had
suddenly attacked Bani Mustaliq without
warning while they were heedless and their
cattle were being watered at the places of
water. Their fighting men were killed and
their women and children were taken as
captives; the Prophet got Juwairiya on that
day. Nafi said that Ibn 'Umar had told him the
above narration and that Ibn 'Umar was in that
army.

Therefore, with clear plunder in mind, Muhammad
rallied all the fighting men around him to attack the
B.al- Mustaliq. Many Jihadists joined him to have a
share in the loot. Muhammad gave Abu Bakr the flag for
this attack. Curiously, Abdullah ibn Ubay, Muhammad’s
nemesis (and a hypocrite, as per Muhammad) was also
made one of the leaders of this strike team. The
Muslim forces then started marching with thirty
horses. After eight days of marching they encamped at
the wells of Muraysi near the seashore, close to
Mecca. Muhammad pitched tents for himself, Aisha and
Umm Salma, two of his wives who accompanied him. When
the B. al-Mustaliq people heard the arrival of
Muhammad’s soldiers, they were dismayed, but fought
gallantly. After exchanging arrows for a brief period,
the Muslim forces advanced and quickly surrounded the
B. al-Mustaliq, and soon B. al-Mustaliq’s ranks fell
in disarray and they were vanquished, having lost some
of their men. Ali b. Talib killed a few wounded B.
al-Mustaliq people; among them were Malik and his son.
Muhammad seized their cattle herd, took many as
captives and divided them among the Jihadists. Two
hundred families were taken as captives, two thousand
camels (US$700,000) and five thousand sheep and goats
(US$ 175,000), as well as a huge quantity of household
goods (say US$ 100,000) were taken as booty.
Juwayriah, the young, beautiful and vivacious daughter
of B. al-Mutaliq chief was one of those captives. The
household goods were sold in an auction to the highest
bidders. During the battle a Muslim was mortally
wounded by another Muslim by accident. The Muslim
soldiers were hungry for sex and Muhammad allowed them
to rape the B. Mustaliq women captives. Here is a
Hadith from Sahih Bukhari:

Volume 5, Book 59, Number 459:

   Narrated Ibn Muhairiz:

   I entered the Mosque and saw Abu Said
Al-Khudri and sat beside him and asked him
about Al-Azl (i.e. coitus interruptus). Abu
Said said, "We went out with Allah's Apostle
for the Ghazwa of Banu Al-Mustaliq and we
received captives from among the Arab captives
and we desired women and celibacy became hard
on us and we loved to do coitus interruptus.
So when we intended to do coitus interrupt us,
we said, 'How can we do coitus interruptus
before asking Allah's Apostle who is present
among us?" We asked (him) about it and he
said, 'It is better for you not to do so, for
if any soul (till the Day of Resurrection) is
predestined to exist, it will exist."

After having sex (rape) with his captive-girl, Said
al-Khudri took this young girl to the nearest slave
market for a quick sale. Here is the continuation of
the above story, as told by al-Waqidi (vol.i, p.413)
and excerpted by Rodinson:

“A Jew said to me: ‘Abu Said, no doubt you want to
sell her as she has in her belly a baby by you.’ I
said: ‘No; I used the ‘azl.’ To which he replied
[sarcastically]: ‘Then it was lesser child-murder!’
When I repeated this story to the Prophet he said:
‘The Jews lie. The Jews lie.’”

In this connection it is worthwhile to mention the
Sharia Law (Islamic Law) on captive women and
children:

Law o9.13

Where a child or a woman is taken captive, they become
slaves by the fact that of capture, and the woman’s
previous marriage is immediately annulled.

Muhammad’s marriage to Juwayriah, his seventh wife

The captives of the B. al-Mustaliq were carried to
Medina. Among the captives were two hundred women. Men
from B. al-Mustaliq soon arrived to make terms for
their release. At first, unknown to Muhammad, the
pretty Juwayriah fell in the hands of Jihadist, Thabit
b. Qays, an Ansar and one of his cousins. Juwayrah was
a young woman, the daughter of B. al-Mustaliq chief
and married to Musab b. Safwan. As soon as she became
a captive, her marriage was immediately cancelled-as
per Islamic rule (see above) and she was handed over
to those two Jihadists to do with her whatever they
liked. It is rather curious to note why a young,
beautiful woman captive be allotted to two Jihadists
at the same time. I have not found any other reference
of a woman captive being shared by two Muslim
soldiers. However, a note in Ibn Sa’d’s book says:
“When a slave girl was allotted to more than one
person, none of them could cohabit with her.” Clearly,
this is a later invention by Muslim biographers to
assert that Muhammad married a Juwayriah who had not
been ‘contaminated’ by another Jihadist. Anyway,
because of Juwayriah’s rank, her captor/s put a ransom
of nine ounces of gold (in today’s estimate, around
US$ 3,600). She could not raise that large sum of
gold. So, she approached Muhammad while he was resting
in Aisha’s apartment and pleaded for some remission
for the heavy price demanded for her release. As soon
as Aisha saw Juwayriah she was filled with jealousy.
Muhammad gently replied that he would pay her ransom
and marry her. Juwayriah agreed on this suggestion.
The ransom was paid and Muhammad immediately married
her and built a seventh quarter to house her in his
ever expanding harem. As soon as the news of marriage
of Juwayriah reached to the people, they took it as a
relationship between them and the B. al-Mustaliq and
as such all the prisoners were let loose free.
Previously her name was Barra (Pious). After Muhammad
married her, he gave her the Islamic name, Juwayriah.
She was only twenty (20) and Muhammad fifty-eight (58)
when he married her. Aisha was only thirteen (13) at
that time! Here is a Hadith from Sunaan Abu Dawud that
describes how Muhammad married Juwayriah:

Book 29, Number 3920:

   Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin:

   Juwayriyyah, daughter of al-Harith ibn
al-Mustaliq, fell to the lot of Thabit ibn
Qays ibn Shammas, or to her cousin. She
entered into an agreement to purchase her
freedom. She was a very beautiful woman, most
attractive to the eye.

   Aisha said: She then came to the Apostle of
Allah (peace_be_upon_him) asking him for the
purchase of her freedom. When she was standing
at the door, I looked at her with disapproval.
I realised that the Apostle of Allah
(peace_be_upon_him) would look at her in the
same way that I had looked.

   She said: Apostle of Allah, I am Juwayriyyah,
daughter of al-Harith, and something has
happened to me, which is not hidden from you.
I have fallen to the lot of Thabit ibn Qays
ibn Shammas, and I have entered into an
agreement to purchase of my freedom. I have
come to you to seek assistance for the
purchase of my freedom.

   The Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) said:
Are you inclined to that which is better? She
asked: What is that, Apostle of Allah? He
replied: I shall pay the price of your freedom
on your behalf, and I shall marry you.

   She said: I shall do this. She (Aisha) said:
The people then heard that the Apostle of
Allah (peace_be_upon_him) had married
Juwayriyyah. They released the captives in
their possession and set them free, and said:
They are the relatives of the Apostle of Allah
(peace_be_upon_him) by marriage. We did not
see any woman greater than Juwayriyyah who
brought blessings to her people. One hundred
families of Banu al-Mustaliq were set free on
account of her.

There is another version of this story that goes like
this:

Harith ibn Abu Dirar, the father of and the chief of
B. al-Mustaliq came to Muhammad to ransom his
daughter, and after talking to Muhammad, he became a
Muslim. It is said that he was astonished at
Muhammad’s incredible power of fore-knowledge of His
(Harith b. Abu Dirar) secret of hidden camels. Then
Juwayriyah followed her father and converted to Islam
as well. As soon as she became a Muslimah, Muhammad
married her and offered her a dowry of four hundred
Dirhams.

Still another version runs like this:

Her (Juwayriah) father was not agreeable to her
marriage to Muhammad and that a relative of her
intervened and gave her to the prophet against the
will of her father.

For more details on Muhammad’s marriage to his captive
woman (Juwayriyah) you may refer to:
http://www.faithfreedom.org/Articles/sina/Juwairiyah.htm

You may also wish to read the Islamic version on the
raid on B. al-Mustaliq at: www.trueteachings,com

From this raid we also learn about the internal feud
between the Muhajirs and the Ansars. Islamic history
often talks of the existence of exceptionally amicable
relationship between the migrant Quraysh (Muhajir) and
the indigenous residents of Medina (Ansars). This is
not really true when we read some details as written
by several Muslim historians. Here is brief account of
the acrimonious relationship that erupted in the open
during the plunder of B. al-Mustaliq.

From Tabri’s book, we learn:

An altercation took place between the Ansars and the
Mohajirs and swords were drawn while they were drawing
water from a well. There was widespread dislike for
the Muhajirs in Medina. Abd Allah ibn Ubayy (a local
resident of Medina) was greatly disturbed that the
newly arrived Muslim migrants had outnumbered them and
were poised to take over the complete authority of
Medina. When the verbal fight took place between an
Ansar and a Muhajir, and Abd Allah ibn Ubay was
further agitated at the new found audacity of the
Muhajirs he said, “Have they really done it? They have
tried to outrank us and outnumber us in our own lands.
By God, the proverb, ‘Fatten your dog and he will eat
you up!’ fits us and [the wearers of] the jilbab (the
flowing cloak) of Quraysh to a tree. By God if we go
back to Medina, those who are stronger will drive out
the weaker from it.”’ Then he turned to his tribesmen
who were with him and said: “This is what you have
done to yourselves! You allowed them to settle in your
lands and divided your wealth with them. Had you kept
from them what you had, by God they would have moved
to lands other than yours”

Very soon, these utterances of Abd Allah ibn Ubayy
reached Muhammad who was then sitting with Umar b.
Khattab. Umar was furious and sought Muhammad’s
permission to kill Abd Allah ibn Ubayy forthwith. But
Muhammad refused to permit him to do so, saying that
slaying of Abd Allah ibn Ubay would simply aggravate
the situation further by angering the Ansars. To
placate the situation, and to avoid bloodshed,
Muhammad then ordered his entourage to proceed towards
Medina without delaying further.

In this episode we also learn about the mindset of an
Islamic fundamentalist. Abd Allah ibn Ubayy’s son. Abd
Allah ibn Abd Allah ibn Ubayy was such a
fundamentalist. Ibn Sa’d writes: ‘Abd Allah ibn Abd
Allah ibn Ubayy went forward and waited for his father
on the way. When he saw him, he made him sit down and
said: “I shall not let you go unless you realize that
you have been humbled and Muhammad is honorable.” That
meant, for a true Jihadist, nothing, even his father,
can be dearer than Muhammad.

When Abd Allah ibn Ubayy came to learn that Muhammad
is already aware of his seditious statements, he went
straight to him and denied all allegations against
him. Muhammad now became accommodative to Abd Allah
ibn Ubayy when people told him that he (Muhammad) had
dashed the hope of Abd Allah ibn Ubayy who was
destined to be the king of Medina.

The Muslims traveled continuously for a day and a
night until dawn. Then they halted at a place, and
soon they fell asleep. Muhammad did this ruse on
purpose to trick the Muslims on a long and exhaustive
journey, so that the talk about Abd Allah ibn Ubayy
died down. In the evening, when the Muslim army rose
fresh from their sleep they marched through the Hijaj
and halted at a watering place called Naqa. In the
afternoon, while Muhammad was at Naqa a very strong
wind blew, hurting the Muslim. They became afraid and
assumed that to be a curse from Allah. But Muhammad
cleverly told his followers that the strong wind came
to Muhammad to announce the death of one of the great
men among the unbelievers. When the Jihadists arrived
at Medina they heard that Rifaah b. Zayd, a prominent
man among the B. Qaynuqa Jews and a great refuge for
the polytheists had died. [Note: this story is
completely implausible as Muhammad had already
expelled from Medina all the Jews of B.
Qaynuqa].During this journey through the desert, the
Muslims did not have water to perform ablution; so
Allah revealed the verse (4:43) on Tayammum (ablution
using dirt).On this occasion, a complete Sura (Sura
63) was released by Allah on Abd Allah ibn Ubayy and
the hypocrites like him.

When Abd Allah ibn Ubay’s son, Abd Allah b. Abd Allah
b. Ubayy heard of what had happened he approached
Muhammad and volunteered to kill his father. He said
to Muhammad: “Messenger of God, I have been told that
you want to kill ‘Abd Allah b. Ubayy because of what
has been reported to you concerning him. If you are
going to do it, command me to do it and I will bring
you his head. By God, al-Khazraj know that there has
never been among them a man more dutiful to his father
than I. I am afraid that you may order someone else to
do it and he may kill him; and then my soul will not
allow me to look on the slayer of Abd Allah b. Ubayy
walking among the people: I would kill him, killing a
believer to avenge an unbeliever, and thereby enter
the Fire [of hell].” Mubarakpuri calls this type of
fanatic Jihadist a ‘righteous’ Muslim.

However, Muhammad diplomatically advised Abd Allah
(son of ibn Ubayy) not to commit such an act but to be
gentle with his father so long as he (Abd Allah ibn
Ubayy) remained a Muslim, albeit a nominal one.

After Muhammad arrived at Medina, a polytheist from
Mecca, Miqyas b. Subbah came at Medina and became a
Muslim. He came to seek the blood money for his newly
convert Muslim brother (Hisham b. Subbah) who was
killed by mistake during the raid at B. al-Mustaliq.
Muhammad paid his blood money to Miqyas.

After receiving the blood money for his brother,
Miqyas stayed at Medina for a short while. Then he
killed the slayer of his brother, apostatized and left
for Mecca. We need to remember the name of Miqyas, as
we shall see very soon that he was one of the persons
whom Muhammad targeted for killing during his
occupation of Mecca. Miqyas was earmarked for murder
not because of his killing of his brother’s killer,
but because he (Miqyas) apostatized.

During this raid the affair regarding the adulterous
relation of Aisha, Muhammad’s youngest and the most
favorite wife, with an errant Bedouin youth took
place. However, since this is not a case of plunder
and terror, it will not be discussed here.

Terror Forty-seven

Second Raid at Dumat al-Jandal by Abd al-Rahman b.
Awf-December, 627CE

Abd al-Rahman b. Awf was one of the closest companions
of Muhammad. Muhammad appointed him to make the second
raid on Dumat al-Jandal (Duma). He told Abd al-Rahman,
‘Fight everyone in the way of God and kill those who
disbelieve in God. Do not be deceitful with spoils, do
not be treacherous, nor mutilate, do not kill
children. This is God’s ordinance and practice of his
prophet among you. ‘

Abd al-Rahman b. Awf then set out at the behest of
seven hundred men on the expedition to Dumat al-Jandal
(Duma), that lay on the route to Khaybar, Fadak and
then branching out to Syria and Iraq. Duma was a great
trading center; the inhabitants were mainly Christians
and were ruled by a Christian king. Following the
Islamic rule, on reaching Duma, Abd al-Rahman b. Awf
summoned the resident tribes to embrace Islam within
three days or face execution. People had no choice but
to comply with his dreadful ultimatum. During this
ultimatum period, Al-Asbagh, a Christian chief of Bani
Kalb complied and many of his followers also followed
suit. Other tribes also paid tribute (Jizya) to Abd
al-Rahman. On agreement to pay Jizya tax regularly,
they were allowed to keep their Christianity. When
this good news was communicated to Muhammad, he
(Muhammad) instructed Abd al-Rahman to marry Tamadhir,
the daughter of the Christian chief, Al-Asbagh. In an
epistle to Abd al-Rahman, Muhammad wrote, “If they
obey you, marry the daughter of their king.” So Abd
al-Rahman married Tumadhir bt.al-Asbagh, the daughter
of their Christian king and brought this lady with him
to Medina. She became one of his many wives, as many
as sixteen, besides many concubines.

Terror Forty-eight

Raid at Fadak against B. Sad by Ali ibn
Talib-December, 627CE

Muhammad received intelligence information that B.
Sa’d b. Bakr, the tribe inhabiting Fadak was planning
to help the Khaybar Jews. So he sent Ali b. Abi Talib
to punish them. Having traveled by night and
concealing by day, Ali arrived at the site and lay in
wait for them during the day. The Muslims caught a spy
who informed them that B. Sa’d b. Bakr had agreed to
aid the Khaybar Jews in exchange for some harvest of
Khaybar crop. Ali then returned Medina with the
captive.

Terror Forty-nine

Raid against Umm Qirfa of B. Fazarah by Zayd b.
Haritha/Abu Bakr-January, 628CE

Readers may recall Zayd b. Haritha’s first raid at
Wadi al-Qura (see Terror 45, CH. 11). When this raid
ended in a failure, Zayd conducted several warlike
raids of inferior importance. In one of these
operations, he set out for a mercantile trip to Syria
to do some border trading there. When he arrived at
Wadi al-Qura, he again raided the inhabitants there.
However, his caravan was waylaid and was attacked by
B. Fazarah tribe. During the fighting B. Fazarah
killed a number of Muslims including Ward b. Amr, one
of Zayd’s dear comrade-in-arms. Zayd himself was
wounded.

After Zayd returned to Medina with his wound he vowed
to avenge the death of his comrade by raiding B.
Fazarah again. After his recovery from the injury
Muhammad sent Zayd with an army against the B.
Fazarah. He attacked them at Wadi al-Qura and
inflicted heavy casualties on them. He took Umm Qirfa
(her real name was Fatimah bt. Rabiah b. Badr), the
wife of Malik b. Hudhayfah, the chief of B. Fazarah,
as a prisoner. Umm Qirfa was a very old woman having a
young and extremely beautiful daughter. She (Umm
Qirfa) was the aunt of Uyeina and was married to her
cousin, Malik, the uncle of Uyeina. They formed a
branch of Fazarah, Fazarah tribe being a branch of the
Ghatafan tribe. Zayd took her daughter as a captive
and ordered a Jihadist, Qays b. Mohsin to kill Umm
Qirfa. Her old age and sex did not deter her from
receiving a barbaric Islamic punishment from the
Muslim army (Please note here the hypocrisy of Islamic
rule on killing a woman). Qays tied each of her legs
with a rope and attached the ropes to two camels. Then
he drove the camels in opposite directions thus
renting her in two. Rodinson writes that Umm Qirfa was
torn from limb to limb by four camels. Two brothers
from the same family were also brutally executed. When
told, Muhammad fully approved this ferocious
punishment meted out to a grand old lady. When Zayd
brought Umm Qirfa’s daughter to Muhammad, he allocated
her to Salamah b. Amr al-Akwa, a Jihadist who captured
her. She belonged to a very distinguished Arab family.
Then Muhammad found that one of his maternal uncles,
Hazn b. Abi Wahb was eyeing on Umm Qirfa’s beautiful
daughter. So he asked her owner, Salamah b. Amr b.
al-Akwa, if he would give her to his (Muhammad’s)
uncle. Salamah readily agreed to Muhammad’s request.
This distinguished lady was then passed on to
Muhammad’s uncle for his private use.

Another version of this story says that the leader of
this raid was Abu Bakr b. Abi Quhafah (told by
Salamah) and runs like this:

Muhammad appointed Abu Bakr as the leader of this
raiding party. When Abu Bakr arrived at Wadi al-Qura,
he ordered his troop to rest there; then they prayed.
After prayer, Abu Bakr made a raid on B. Fazarah. The
Muslims killed a number of B. Fazarah people and
captured a number of their women and children. Among
them was Umm Qirfa, a very old lady, wearing a
worn-out piece of leather coat. With her was her young
daughter, the fairest of the Arabs. Abu Bakr gave Umm
Qirfa’s pretty, young and vivacious daughter to, the
Jihadist, who had captured her as a booty. After
Salamah b. al-Akwa returned to Medina and met Muhammad
at the market place, he (Muhammad) asked Salamah to
give this pretty young lass to him. Salamah told
Muhammad that he liked her but had not had sex with
her yet. Then he offered her to Muhammad.

Quoting Salamah, Tabari (Tabari, vol. viii, p.97)
writes:

‘When I returned to Medina, the messenger of God met
me in the market and said, “Salamah-how excellent the
father who begot you!-give me the woman.” I said,
“Messenger of God, I like her, by God, and I have not
uncovered her garment.” He said nothing to me until
the next day, when he met me in the market and said,
“Salamah-how excellent a father begot you!-give me the
woman.” I said: “Messenger of God, I have not touched
her garment. She is yours, Messenger of God.” The
Messenger of God sent her to Mecca, and with her he
ransomed some Muslim captives who were in the hands of
the polytheists.’

There is a similar Hadith from Sahih Muslim (Refer to:
Sahih Muslim: Book 19, Hadith number 4345)

Terror Fifty

Barbarous Execution of Uraynah Robbers By
Muhammad-February, 628CE

Eight members B. Uraynah , a Bedouin tribe, came to
Muhammad and embraced Islam. The climate of Medina did
not suit them. They complained about a stomach problem
they were suffering from an epidemic. Muhammad gave
them some camels to take with them; instructed them to
drink the camel’s milk and urine as medicines. They
took the camels in the plain south of Quba for
grazing. Following Muhammad’s prescription, they soon
recovered from their stomach problem. Then they
escaped with the camels by killing the camel herdsman
by cutting off his hands and legs and poking thorny
spikes into his tongue and eyes. When this news
reached Muhammad, he dispatched twenty horsemen in hot
pursuit of the robbers. They caught the robbers and
recovered all the camels except one. The eight
captives were then brought to Muhammad. On Muhammad’s
order their arms and legs were cut off and their eyes
were put off. The trunks of these wretched victims
were then laid side by side in the hot sun in the
plain of al-Ghaba until they died. On this occasion
the verses on the punishment of waging war against
Allah and for theft were released (5:39, 33).

This story is mentioned in Sahih Bukhari:

Volume 8, Book 82, Number 796:

   Narrated Anas:

   A group of people from 'Ukl (tribe) came to
the Prophet and they were living with the
people of As-Suffa, but they became ill as the
climate of Medina did not suit them, so they
said, "O Allah's Apostle! Provide us with
milk." The Prophet said, I see no other way
for you than to use the camels of Allah's
Apostle." So they went and drank the milk and
urine of the camels, (as medicine) and became
healthy and fat. Then they killed the shepherd
and took the camels away. When a help-seeker
came to Allah's Apostle, he sent some men in
their pursuit, and they were captured and
brought before mid day. The Prophet ordered
for some iron pieces to be made red hot, and
their eyes were branded with them and their
hands and feet were cut off and were not
cauterized. Then they were put at a place
called Al-Harra, and when they asked for water
to drink they were not given till they died.
(Abu Qilaba said, "Those people committed
theft and murder and fought against Allah and
His Apostle.")

Terror Fifty-one

Assassination of Al-Yusayr b. Rizam and a party of
Khaybar Jews at al-Qarqara-February, 628CE

Even with the assassination of Abu Rafi (also known as
Sallam ibn Abul-Huqayq), the chief of Khaybar Jews in
December, 624 (see Terror 20, CH. 5) Muhammad did not
feel safe from the Jews of Khaybar. The new chief of
the Khaybar Jews was Al-Yusayr b. Rizam. He maintained
the good relation with the B. Ghatafan, the tribe that
Muhammad feared a lot. Muhammad heard that Al-Yusayr
b. Rizam was planning a fresh attack against him. So
he quickly dispatched Abdallah ibn Rawaha, a leader of
the B. Khazraj to Khaybar to gather intelligence to
eliminate Al-Yusayr clandestinely. But Abd Allah ibn
Rawaha found the Jews to be extremely alert for this
type of covert political murder to be a success.

When he returned to Medina with this bad news,
Muhammad again sent him openly with thirty men (or
thirty selected killers) mounted on camels to persuade
al-Yusayr b. Rizam to visit Medina. When the Muslims
arrived at Khaybar the Jews treated them well. Abd
Allah ibn Rawaha pretended to be friendly with the
Jews and invited al-Yusayr b. Rizam to visit Medina
with them.He assured al-Yusayr b. Rizam that Muhammad
would make him the ruler of Khaybar, giving al-Yusayr
b. Rizam a solemn guarantee of his safety. At first,
al-Yusayr declined. But due to the persistence of the
Muslim delegation he finally relented and went with
them with a number of Jews. One of the Muslim
delegates, Abd Allah b. Unays mounted al-Yusayr on his
beast and rode behind him. When they arrived at
al-Qarqarat, about six miles from Khaybar, al-Yusayr
suspected the ill-motive of the Muslims and changed
his mind about going to meet Muhammad. He dismounted
from the beast he was riding with Abd Allah Unays. Abd
Allah b. Unays claimed that he perceived al-Yusayr was
drawing his sword. So he rushed at him and cut off his
leg. Al-Yusayr hit Abd Allah b. Unays with a piece of
wood and wounded his head. Ibn Ishak claims that
later, God killed al-Yusayr. The Muslims killed all
other Jews except one who escaped on his feet. When
Abd Allah b. Unays came to Muhammad, Muhammad spat
on his wound in his head and it healed immediately!
Muhammad praised Allah when he heard the news of
assassination of al-Yusayr b. Rizam and the killing of
the Jews.

Chapter Thirteen

‘Violence is the repartee of the illiterate’---Alan
Brien (1925-)

Terror Fifty-two

The Raid on Khaybar and Fadak by Muhammad-May, 628CE

In the spring (around March) of 628 Muhammad, along
with one thousand and five hundred (1,500) of his
devout supporters, went on a mission to perform Umra
(minor Hajj) at Mecca. However, fearing mischief, the
Meccans did not allow Muhammad to enter the city,
forcing him to encamp at a place called Hudaibiya in
the outskirts of Mecca. While there, he negotiated a
ten year peace treaty with the Quraysh that permitted
him to enter Mecca beginning from the following year
and perform Hajj with his followers. This is the
famous Hudaibiya pact. After signing this treaty, and
while returning to Mecca, he heard the murmur of
discontent from his followers for entering into a
treaty that was heavily in favor of the Quraysh.
Besides, the nascent Jihadists also missed an
opportunity to plunder further the Meccans. Muhammad
was clever enough to realize that he must continue
rewarding his Jihadists through ill-gotten wealth
otherwise, his Jihadists would waver in their faith in
him. This was also a time of severe drought at Medina.
So, while he was on his way back (to Medina), he
already made up his mind to conduct a fresh raid on
the Jews. Since all other Jews around Medina had
either been expelled or liquidated through pogrom,
Muhammad decided to plunder and loot the remaining
Jews at Khaybar. Haykal writes that the the Jews
living at Khaybar were the strongest, the richest and
the best equipped for war of all the peoples of Arabia
(Hykal, Ch. Khaybar expedition).To assure and to
please Muhammad in this plunder, Allah revealed Sura
al-Fath (Victory, Sura 48) forgiving his past and
future sins (48:2) and guaranteeing him triumph
(48:21) through His (Allah’s) help. In verses 48:16,
20 Allah promised further booty for joining in Jihad;
this was to improve the material life of the
Jihadists. Mubarakpuri insists that this promise of
booty meant the loot of Khaybar. Emboldened by such
divine promise of succor, Muhammad’s followers were
now ready for a new pillage, and within a few weeks
after their return from Hudaibiya they headed for
Khaybar to loot it. We can confirm the truth of this
outright, unprovoked plundering operation from the
history of al-Tabari:

During the prevailing draught at Medina at that time,
a group of B. Aslam who had embraced Islam came to
Muhammad for assistance. But Muhammad had nothing to
assist them. So he prayed to Allah so that they could
plunder the richly laden fortresses of the Khyabar
Jews including their luscious green agricultural
lands. He said, “O God, Thou knowest their
condition-that they have no strength and that I have
nothing to give them. Open to them [for conquest] the
greatest of the fortresses of Khaybar, the one most
abounding in food and fat meat.”

The next morning, Muhammad plundered the fortress of
al-Sa’b b. Muadh (a Jewish chief) that had the most
abundance in food.

Even Sahih Bukhari writes that the major purpose for
raiding Khaybar was food:

Volume 5, Book 59, Number 547:

   Narrated 'Aisha:

   When Khaibar was conquered, we said, "Now we
will eat our fill of dates!"

Volume 5, Book 59, Number 548:

   Narrated Ibn Umar:

   We did not eat our fill except after we had
conquered Khaibar.

It is important to review this embezzling operation in
detail, as the actions of the Jihadists in this terror
operation portray accurately the true mindset of the
messenger of Allah.

As stated earlier, after his return from Hudaibiya,
Muhammad had promised his followers a great spoil of
plunder. About six weeks passed without much
happening. His followers became impatient. He was now
looking for an excuse to perpetrate such an act of
plundering the Jews. But no such opportunity came
readily. So, in May, 628 he preemptively made a sudden
and unprovoked assault on the Jews of Khaybar.

Muhammad’s army started marching against the Khaybar
Jews with a force of around one thousand and four
hundred (1,400) strong men. He took a big cavalry of
between one and two hundred. Many Bedouins and other
tribes of Medina, who, hitherto neglected Muhammad
also wanted to join in this swag. But Muhammad refused
to take them in for their refusal to join in Hudaibiya
in the first place. Kahybar booty was meant only for
those terrorists who were willing to accompany the
messenger of Allah through thick and thin. In verse
48:15 Allah also instructed him not to entrust these
hypocrite Arabs. Umm Salama, one of Muhammad’s seven
wives accompanied the Prophet of mercy. Using lottery
(his usual practice)Muhammad chose her amongst his
many wives. The Muslim army covered the distance of
about one hundred miles from Medina in about four or
five days. Ibn Sa’d writes that it was a fasting
month; some Muslims fasted, some did not. Before
making this wanton attack on the Khaybar Jews,
Muhammad stopped at a valley named al-Rajii; not the
al-Rajii near Taif where Muhammad’s companions were
killed (see Terror 25, CH. 7). He encamped there
between the people of Ghatafan and the people of
Khaybar. This was a ruse to prevent the people of
Ghatafan to come to the aid of the Khaybar Jews when
he attacked them.

Nonetheless, when the Ghatafan heard of Muhammad’s
advance they assembled their men and marched forward
to help the Khaybar people. After marching for a day
they heard from sources that Muhammad had attacked
their (i.e., Ghatafan’s) families that they had left
behind. So they hastened back to protect their
families. This was a clever ploy by the Muslims,
because now the way to Khaybar was completely open
unhindered to Muhammad. Then Muhammad offered his
morning prayer and made an early morning attack on the
inhabitants of Khaybar claiming that early morning
times were miserable times for the infidels (see Sahih
Bukhari, vol. 4, book 52, number 195).

The attack was so sudden that the farmers of Khaybar
were completely stunned, when early in the morning,
when they were about to go to work in their
plantations, they found that the Muslim soldiers had
surrounded them. This sudden invasion by the Muslim
army cut off all the hopes of the Jews to get aid from
B. Ghatafan.

Ibn Ishak writes that the war cry of the Muslims at
Khaybar was, ‘O victorious one slay, slay!’

It is the Islamic custom to raid a place early in the
morning invoking the name of Allah (note the timing of
9/11). Here is a Hadith from Sahih Bukhari to confirm
the sudden and unprovoked attack on the Khaybar Jews:
(You will find quite a few similar Ahadith in Sahih
Bukhari and Sahih Muslim)

Volume 1, Book 11, Number 584:

   Narrated Humaid:

   Anas bin Malik said, "Whenever the Prophet
went out with us to fight (in Allah's cause)
against any nation, he never allowed us to
attack till morning and he would wait and see:
if he heard Adhan he would postpone the attack
and if he did not hear Adhan he would attack
them." Anas added, "We reached Khaibar at
night and in the morning when he did not hear
the Adhan for the prayer, he (the Prophet )
rode and I rode behind Abi Talha and my foot
was touching that of the Prophet.

   The inhabitants of Khaibar came out with their
baskets and spades and when they saw the
Prophet they shouted 'Muhammad! By Allah,
Muhammad and his army.' When Allah's Apostle
saw them, he said, "Allahu-Akbar!
Allahu-Akbar! Khaibar is ruined. Whenever we
approach a (hostile) nation (to fight), then
evil will be the morning of those who have
been warned."

Initially shocked, the Khaybar Jews immediately
returned to their fortresses and prepared to fight
Muhammad’s invading army. They had some time to rally
around their new leader, Abul Huqayq and posted
themselves in front of their citadel, Qamus and
resolved to fight a desperate battle. Previously,
Muhammad had assassinated Sallam ibn Abul-Huqayq (Abu
Rafi) and another Jewish leader, Al-Yusayr b. Rizam
just a few months before (see Terror 51, CH. 12). In
the beginning, Muhammad made a few unsuccessful
attempts to dislodge them from their formidable
fortress.

Then one of the Jews, Marhab challenged the Muslims in
a single combat. So, a Jihadist, Amir, confronted
Marhab. Unfortunately, while attacking Marhab, Amir
accidentally cut his median vein by himself that cost
him his life. Many Muslims thought that Amir had
committed suicide and sought Muhammad’s clarification
about those who commit suicide while fighting the
infidels. Muhammad assured them that Amir will receive
double reward for his (suicidal) action. Sourcing
authentic chain of narrators, Ibn Sa’d writes: ‘
Salamah ibn Akwa said: “ I came across the Companions
of the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, who
declared: All the good deeds of ‘Amir were lost, as he
had committed suicide. Salamah said: Then I approached
the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him weeping and
asked: ‘Were the deeds of ‘Amir vain? He said: And who
said this? I said some of your Companions (said this).
The Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him said: He who
said this uttered a lie. His reward has been
doubled.”’

This very first act of Islamic suicide ‘attack’ is
recorded in Sahih Bukhari in this way:

Volume 5, Book 59, Number 515:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

   We witnessed (the battle of) Khaibar. Allah's
Apostle said about one of those who were with
him and who claimed to be a Muslim. "This
(man) is from the dwellers of the Hell-Fire."
When the battle started, that fellow fought so
violently and bravely that he received plenty
of wounds. Some of the people were about to
doubt (the Prophet's statement), but the man,
feeling the pain of his wounds, put his hand
into his quiver and took out of it, some
arrows with which he slaughtered himself (i.e.
committed suicide). Then some men amongst the
Muslims came hurriedly and said, "O Allah's
Apostle! Allah has made your statement true
so-and-so has committed suicide. "The Prophet
said, "O so-and-so! Get up and make an
announcement that none but a believer will
enter Paradise and that Allah may support the
religion with an unchaste (evil) wicked man.

After the death (suicide) of Amir, Muhammad b.
Maslamah (the professional killer) went to fight with
Marhab and in a grueling duel he killed Marhab. Then
Marhab’s brother, Yasir rushed forward to avenge his
brother’s death.

The Jihadist al-Zubayr went forward to meet him in a
single combat. After a short fighting, al-Zubayr
killed Yasir.

In this terror operation we also note the cowardice by
Umar b. Khattab, whom the Islamists portray as an
incredibly intrepid Jihadist.

When Muhammad encamped at the Khaybar, he gave the
banner to Umar b. al-Khattab. Umar went to fight with
the Jews but was chased out by them. After returning
to Muhammad, his companions complained of Umar’s
cowardice. So next day, Muhammad gave the banner to
Ali who, at that time had an inflamed eye. Muhammad
spat on his eyes and Ali’s eyes were healed!

Another version of killing of Marhab runs like this:

Muhammad often had migraine headache and would not
come out from his hideout for a few days. When he
attacked Khaybar, he was suffering from such a
migraine headache, and so he did not venture out of
his lair. At first, Abu Bakr went out and fought
vigorously. When he returned, Umar went out and fought
with more vigor and then came back to Muhammad.

After learning about the not so successful outcomes
from those two lieutenants of him, on the next day,
Muhammad sent Ali who arrived in the morning with
inflamed eyes. Muhammad spat in his eyes and the pain
departed immediately. Then Ali went out to fight.
Approaching the fortress of Khyabar, he met Marhab,
the commander of the fortress enticing the Jews to
fight the invaders. They met in a single combat in
which Ali killed Marhab by a heavy blow of sword that
split Marhab’s head.

A general battle now ensued and the Muslims were able
to make a good advance. The situation of the Jews
became desperate. Muhammad started appropriating
Khaybar property piece by piece, fortress by fortress.
He captured the first fortress that belonged to Na’im.
Muhammad’s comrade Mahmud b Maslama (Muhammad b.
Maslama’s brother) was killed here when a millstone
was hurled at him. The next fortress to fall was
Qamus, which belonged to Abul Huqayq. Then Muhammad
besieged the last two of the fortresses, the fortress
of al-Watih and al-Sulalim for thirteen and nineteen
days respectively. The Jewish leader, Sallam ibn
Mishkam was killed and al Harith ibn Abu Zaynab took
over the leadership of the Jewish forces. Many Jews,
after being defeated at other locations had taken
sanctuary at these two fortresses that Muhammad found
difficult to penetrate. So he, as per Islamic rule,
cut off their water supply. The hapless Jews then had
no choice but to submit to the invading Muslim army.
Muhammad continued with his plunder until he finished
capturing all the property that he could lay his hands
on. He agreed to spare the lives of the surrendered
Jews by expelling them from their ancestral homes on
condition that they must hand over all their yellow
and white metals (i.e. gold and silver). The Jews were
permitted to take with them all their belongings that
they could load on their beasts (camels and donkeys)
except for gold and silver. Failure to comply with
this stipulation meant a certain death-Muhammad
warned. There was a severe shortage of provision for
the Muslim soldiers and many of them became very
hungry. Unable to find provision easily, Muhammad
asked them to eat horse meat but forbade them to eat
donkey meat. Other prohibitions imposed were: the
eating of garlic (raw) and the ‘muta’ (contract)
marriage. However, the Shia sect of Islam claims that
no such ban on ‘muta’ marriage was imposed.

Thus, the Muslims had a decisive victory. The Jews
lost ninety-three (93) men while the loss on the
Muslim side was only nineteen (19) men. Muhammad took
some Khaybar Jews as captives, including Safiyyah bt.
Huyayy b. Akhtab, an exquisitely pretty young newly
married bride of Kinanah b. al-Rabi b. al-Huqayq. She
was the daughter of B. Nadir chief, Huayy b. Akhtab
who was beheaded by Muhammad in the slaughtering of B.
Qurayzah (Muhammad had already expelled B. Nadir Jews
from Medina (see Terror 28, CH. 8). Kinanah had
recently married Safiyyah, the young, vivacious and
pouted daughter of Huyayy and had received a good
treasure trove as gift. Muhammad also took two
daughters of Safiyaah’s paternal uncle. At first
Dihyah al-Kalbi, a Muslim Jihadists asked for
Safiyyah. But when Muhammad saw the unparallel beauty
of her, he chose her for himself and gave her two
cousin sisters to Dihyah.

Tabari writes:

“After the Messenger of God conquered al-Qamus, the
fortress of Ibn Abi al-Huqyaq, Safiyyah bt. Huyayy b.
Akhtab was brought to him, and another woman with her.
Bilal, who was the one who brought them, led them pat
some of the slain Jews. When the woman who was with
Safiyyah saw them, she cried out, struck her face, and
poured dust on her head. When the Messenger of God saw
her, he said, “Take this she-devil away from me!” she
commanded that Safiyyah should be kept behind him and
that the Messenger of God had chosen her for himself.”

Muslim historians write that Safiyyah’s husband,
Kinanah had slapped her on the previous night when she
showed her fascination (as if fallen in love) for the
king of Hijaz i.e., Muhammad. When Safiyyah was
brought to Muhammad she still had the mark of those
slaps in her face-it is purportedly claimed. When
Muhammad asked her about the traces of blackness in
her eyes she told him the story. These lofty claims
are, of course complete fabrication, if not total
lies, for, nowhere in the biography of Muhammad we
note that Safiyyah had ever any loving feeling or
attraction towards Muhammad. How is it possible for a
teenaged B. Nadir girl to develop loving feeling for
an invader of sixty years old, who, just a few years
ago had expelled all the B. Nadir Jews from their
ancestral abodes at Medina and had beheaded, a la
Islamic style, her father?

Anyway, Muhammad accused Safiyyah’s husband, Kinanah
and his cousin of hiding some of their properties in
contravention of the terms of surrender. He was
especially angered that Kinanah had hidden the wealth
(worth about ten thousad Dinars; i.e, US$ 500,000,
approximately) that he received from his marriage to a
B. Nadir girl (i.e. Safiyyah). A renegade Jew divulged
the secret of Kinanah’s hidden gold treasures. That
Jew went and fetched the hidden treasures. Kinanah and
his cousin were promptly arrested by the Muslims.

Then Kinanah b. al-Rabi, Safiyyah’s husband was
brought to Muhammad. Muhammad charged him of hiding
his wealth in some underground storage. When Kinanah
denied this allegation, Muhammad ordered to inflict
torture on him. He was tormented by branding his chest
with a heated stake and then he was beheaded (recall
the recent Islamic style torturing and beheading of
Nick Berg).

Sourcing Ibn Ishak, Tabari writes:

‘Kinanah b. al-Rabi b. al-Huqyaq who had the treasure
of B. Nadir was brought to the Messenger of God, who
questioned him; but he denied knowing where it was.
Then the messenger of God was brought a Jew who said
to him, “I have seen Kinanah walk around this ruin
every morning.” The Messenger of God said to Kinanah:
“What do you say? If we find it in your possession, I
will kill you.” “All right,” he answered. The
Messenger of God commanded that the ruin should be dug
up, and some of the treasure was extracted from it.
Then he asked him for the rest of it. Kinanah refused
to surrender it; so the Messenger of God gave orders
concerning him to al-Zubayr b. al-‘Awwam, saying,
“torture him until you root out what he has.”
Al-Zubayr kept twirling his firestick in his breast
until Kinanah almost expired; then the Messenger of
God gave him to Muhammad b. Maslamah, who beheaded him
to avenge his brother Mahmud b. Maslamah.”’

Muir writes that then the heads of the two chiefs
(Kinana and his cousin) were severed off.

Because of the so-called treachery by the Jews for
allegedly hiding their treasures, Muhammad now allowed
the Muslim Jihadists to take possession of the women
and children of the Jews of Khaybar

The beheading done, Muhammad sent Bilal to fetch
Safiyyah, Kinana’s wife. Her beauty was well known in
Medina. Her real name was Zaynab and, as told before
she initially fell in the hands of a Jihadist, Dhiya
al-Kalbi. However, when Muhammad heard about her
extreme beauty he chose her as his Safi (i.e, special
selection by Muhammad before the khums and
distribution of booty to the Muslims). So when Zaynab
became Muhammad’s Safi she became to be known as
Safiyyah (Muhammad’s special selection).

Here is a Hadith from Sunan Abu Dawud narrated by none
other than A’isha, Muhammad’s favourite wife, also a
teenager at that time:

Sunan Abu Dawud: Kitab al-Kharaj

Book 19; number 2988

‘A’isha said: Safiyyah was called after the word safi
(a special portion of the Prophet).

From this Hadith book we also read

Sunan Abu Dawud: Kitab al-Kharaj

Book 19; number 2992

Anas said: Captives were gathered at Khaibar. Dihyah
came and said: Apostle of Allah, give me a slave-girl
from the captives. He said : Go and take a slave-girl.
He took Safiyaah daughter of Huyayy. A man then came
to the Prophet (may peace be upon him) and said: You
gave Safiyaah daughter of Huyayy, chief lady of
Quraizah and al-Nadir to Dihyah? This is according to
the version of Ya’qub. Then the version goes: She is
worthy of you. He said: Call him along with her. When
the Prophet (may peace be upon him) looked at her, he
said to him: Take another slave-girl from the
captives. The Prophet (may peace be upon him) then set
her free and married her.

(Please note: those two ahadith are not available in
the internet version of Sunan Abu Dawud. You can read
those sunna in the original Sunan Abu Dawud, (vol.
ii), translated into English by Prof. Ahmad Hasan and
published by Kitab Bhavan, New Delhi, India)

To enjoy this special booty, Muhammad asked Bilal, the
Negro crier of prayer to fetch Safiyyah to his
(Muhammad’s) camp. Bilal brought Safiyyah and her
cousin straight across the battlefield strewn with
dead and close by the corpses of Kinana and his
cousin. The two cousin sisters of Safiyyah shrieked in
terror when they witnessed the grotesque scene of the
slain dead bodies of their dearest relatives that they
had to cross over. They tremulously begged a
stone-hearted Bilal for mercy but to no avail. When
they were brought to Muhammad, he cursed the
panic-stricken cousins as devilish and cast his mantle
around Safiyyah indicating that she was to be his own.
Muhammad consoled a frustrated Dhiya by giving him
Safiyyah’s cousin sisters.

We learn from Ibn Sa’d that Muhammad purchased
Safiyyah from Dhiyah for seven camels (around US$
2,450). On the same night that Muhammad took
possession of Safiyyah, he hastened to his tent to
sleep with her. Here is what Ibn Sa’d writes:

: “….when it was night, he entered a tent and she
entered with him. Abu Ayyub came there and passed the
nigh by the tent by the tent with a sword keeping his
head at the tent. When it was morning and the Apostle
of Allah, may Allah bless him, perceived (some body)
moving, he asked: Who is there? He replied: I am Abu
Ayub. He asked: Why are you here? He replied: O
Apostle of Allah! There is a young lass newly wedded
(to you) with whose late husband you have done what
you have done. I was not sure of safety, so I wanted
to be close to you. Thereupon the Apostle of Allah,
may Allah bless him, said twice: O Abu Ayyub! May
Allah show you mercy.”

To hide the lascivious character of Muhammad, Muslim
biographers often mention that he married Safiyyahh
before he slept with her. But they forget to mention
that Muhammad did not follow the rule of waiting
period (three monthly periods) to sleep with
Safiyyahh.

The Islamic version of Muhammad’s possession of
Safiyyahh runs something like this: Muhammad quickly
married Safiyyahh with a great wedding feast. After
the feast was ended, Muhammad called for a screen to
hide Safiyyahh from public gaze. This was a clear sign
that Muhammad had married Safiyyahh and did not take
her as a slave girl.

Sahih Bukhari writes:

Volume 5, Book 59, Number 512:

   Narrated Anas:

   The Prophet offered the Fajr Prayer near
Khaibar when it was still dark and then said,
"Allahu-Akbar! Khaibar is destroyed, for
whenever we approach a (hostile) nation (to
fight), then evil will be the morning for
those who have been warned." Then the
inhabitants of Khaibar came out running on the
roads. The Prophet had their warriors killed,
their offspring and woman taken as captives.
Safiya was amongst the captives, She first
came in the share of Dahya Alkali but later on
she belonged to the Prophet . The Prophet made
her manumission as her 'Mahr'.

Muhammad was sixty (60) when he married Safiyyahh, a
young girl of seventeen. She became his eighth wife.

During the time of negotiation with the Khaybar Jews,
Muhammad sent a message to the Jews of Fadak asking
them to surrender their properties and wealth or be
attacked.

When the people of Fadak had heard of what tragedy had
befallen the Khaybar Jews, to spare their lives, they
requested Muhammad to take over their property and
banish them. Muhammad did exactly that. After the
Khaybar Jews surrendered to Muhammad and having lost
their only source of livelihood, they requested him to
employ them back on their properties for half the
share of the crop. Muhammad found it much more
convenient to re-employ them, as the Jews were already
very experienced with their land, whereas the Muslims
(the new occupiers of their land) had no experience
with agriculture and cultivation. So Muhammad made
some conciliation to the Khaybar Jews by re-engaging
them in their lost land, but on condition that he
reserved the right to banish them at anytime he
wished. The Jews had very little choice but to agree
with that. Same terms were applied to the Fadak Jews.
Later, when Umar became the Caliph of Islam, he
expelled all the Jews from Kahybar and Fadak

Khaybar became the booty of the Muslims, but Fadak
became Muhammad’s private property (a Fai, to use the
Islamic parlance), as there was no fighting involved
in Fadak. This provision was sanctioned by Allah in
verse 17:64, 59:6-7

After Muhammad had settled the affair of Khaybar, he
took a rest. While he was resting, Zaynab
bt.al-Harith, a Jewess and the wife of Sallam b.
Mishkan (Muhammad had already killed him on charges of
hiding the wealth) served him a roast sheep. It is
alleged that she poisoned it to kill Muhammad. When
she brought the meat to Muhammad and his companions,
Muhammad took a bite of the foreleg and chewed it but
suspected some foul play and did not swallow it. Two
of his companions chewed the meat and then swallowed
it and one of them died on the spot. Muhammad suffered
from excruciating pain. Zaynab was then summoned and
interrogated as to the motive of her offence. She
boldly condemned the cold-blooded murder, by Muhammad,
of her father, her husband and her uncle. She said,
“How you have afflicted my people is not hidden from
you. So I said, ‘If he is a prophet, he will be
informed, but if he is king, I shall be rid of him.’”
She was then put to death. Some say that she was set
free. It is claimed that the effect of the poison
lasted until the dying time of Muhammad.

The plunder from the Khaybar raid was enormous. As
usual, a fifth of the booty was set apart for
Muhammad. The remaining four-fifths were then divided
into one thousand and eight hundred (1,800) shares.
One share went for a foot soldier and three for a
horseman. Different Islamic rule was applied for land
grab. One half of Khaybar land was reserved for
Muhammad and his family (i.e. a sort of crown
property). The remaining land was divided using the
same rule as for the personal booty. Only those
Jihadists who had previously participated in the
Hudaibiya expedition were rewarded, irrespective of
whether they joined in the Khaybar plunder or not.

We read in Sahih Bukhari:

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 531:

   Narrated Ibn 'Umar:

   Umar expelled the Jews and the Christians from
Hijaz. When Allah's Apostle had conquered
Khaibar, he wanted to expel the Jews from it
as its land became the property of Allah, His
Apostle, and the Muslims. Allah's Apostle
intended to expel the Jews but they requested
him to let them stay there on the condition
that they would do the labor and get half of
the fruits. Allah's Apostle told them, "We
will let you stay on thus condition, as long
as we wish." So, they (i.e. Jews) kept on
living there until 'Umar forced them to go
towards Taima' and Ariha'.

Muhammad used the annexed land of the Jews of Khaybar
to secure the livelihood of his ever increasing number
of wives in his Harem. Sahih Muslim writes:

Book 010, Number 3759:

   Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with them)
reported: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon
him) handed over the land of Khaibar (on the
condition) of the share of produce of fruits
and harvest, and he also gave to his wives
every year one hundred wasqs: eighty wasqs of
dates and twenty wasqs of barley. When 'Umar
became the caliph he distributed the (lands
and trees) of Khaibar, and gave option to the
wives of Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon
him) to earmark for themselves the land and
water or stick to the wasqs (that they got)
every year. They differed in this matter. Some
of them opted for land and water, and some of
them opted for wasqs every year. 'A'isha and
Hafsa were among those who opted for land and
water.

Muhammad’s comrade-in arms, Umar ibn Khattab became
the landlord through the land-grab at Khaybar. Here is
Sahih Muslim to confirm Umar’s appropriation of Jewsih
land:

Book 013, Number 4006:

   Ibn Umar reported: Umar acquired a land at
Khaibar. He came to Allah's Apostle (may peace
be upon him) and sought his advice in regard
to it. He said: Allah's Messenger, I have
acquired land in Khaibar. I have never
acquired property more valuable for me than
this, so what do you command me to do with it?
Thereupon he (Allah's Apostle) said: If you
like, you may keep the corpus intact and give
its produce as Sadaqa. So 'Umar gave it as
Sadaqa declaring that property must not be
sold or inherited or given away as gift. And
Umar devoted it to the poor, to the nearest
kin, and to the emancipation of slaves, aired
in the way of Allah and guests. There is no
sin for one, who administers it if he eats
something from it in a reasonable manner, or
if he feeds his friends and does not hoard up
goods (for himself). He (the narrator) said: I
narrated this hadith to Muhammad, but as I
reached the (words)" without hoarding (for
himself) out of it." he (Muhammad' said:"
without storing the property with a view to
becoming rich." Ibn 'Aun said: He who read
this book (pertaining to Waqf) informed me
that in it (the words are)" without storing
the property with a view to becoming rich."

Book 013, Number 4008:

   'Umar reported: I acquired land from the lands
of Khaibar. I came to Allah's Messenger (may
peace be upon him) and said: I have acquired a
piece of land. Never have I acquired land more
loved by me and more cherished by me than
this. The rest of the hadith is the same, but
he made no mention of this:" I narrated it to
Muhammad" and what follows.

The Muslims became wealthy and prosperous from the
booty of Khaybar. In fact, they were so handsomely
rewarded that they cleared all their debts to the
Ansars (helpers) and stopped becoming a burden to
them. Mubarakpuri, sourcing Sahih Muslim writes:

“On their return to Medinah, the emigrants were able
to return to the helpers of Medinah all the gifts they
had received. All of this affluence came after the
conquest of Khaiber and the economic benefits that the
Muslims began to reap.”

Muhammad himself, became a big land-owner after he
annexed the lands of the Jews i.e. B. Nadir, Khaybar
and Fadak. Here is a Hadith from Sunaan Abu Dawud on
Muhammad’s appropriation of Jewish lands:

Book 19, Number 2961:

   Narrated Umar ibn al-Khattab:

   Malik ibn Aws al-Hadthan said: One of the
arguments put forward by Umar was that he said
that the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him)
received three things exclusively to himself:
Banu an-Nadir, Khaybar and Fadak. The Banu
an-Nadir property was kept wholly for his
emergent needs, Fadak for travellers, and
Khaybar was divided by the Apostle of Allah
(peace_be_upon_him) into three sections: two
for Muslims, and one as a contribution for his
family. If anything remained after making the
contribution of his family, he divided it
among the poor Emigrants.

In this manner, by using terror and plunder, the
Muslims found a large and a permanent source of
wherewithal for their survival. In this way, Muhammad
rewarded those faithfuls who showed their loyalty to
him by accompanying him to Hudaibiya. The
captive-women of Khaybar were distributed amongst the
Jihadists. Many Jihadists wanted to copulate with
these hapless women even when some of them were
pregnant. So Muhammad had to promulgate the rules on
co-habitation with booty-women. Quoting sources, Ibn
Sa’d writes that Muhammad said:

“He who believes in Allah and the last day, should not
irrigate the crop of other (i.e. should not cohabit
with a pregnant hand-maid before delivery). He who
believes in Allah and the last day, should not cohabit
with an enslaved woman till she is cleared (i.e. two
periods have passed). He who believes in Allah and the
last day should not sell the booty till it is divided.
He, who believes in Allah and the last day, should not
ride the beast of the booty of the Muslims in a way
that it becomes lean and then return it to the booty
of the Muslims; or wear a cloth and he return it to
the booty of the Muslims when it is worn out.”

On the plunder of Khaybar Sahih Bukhari writes:

Volume 2, Book 14, Number 68:

   Narrated Anas bin Malik:

   Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) offered the Fajr
prayer when it was still dark, then he rode
and said, 'Allah Akbar! Khaibar is ruined.
When we approach near to a nation, the most
unfortunate is the morning of those who have
been warned." The people came out into the
streets saying, "Muhammad and his army."
Allah's Apostle vanquished them by force and
their warriors were killed; the children and
women were taken as captives. Safiya was taken
by Dihya Al-Kalbi and later she belonged to
Allah's Apostle go who married her and her
Mahr was her manumission.

It is reported that some women Jihadists did
participate in the expedition of Khyabar. These
Muslimahs did not receive any share of booty. Muhammad
gave them small gifts from the loot (i.e., they were
given from the one-fifth share of the plunder,
especially reserved for Muhammad) but he did not
assign any share to them.

During this time, some of the exiles from Abyssinia
returned to Medina. Among them was Muhammad’s cousin,
Jafar, Ali’s brother. These newly arrived migrants
shared in the booty of Khaybar.

While at Khaybar, Muhammad received, as a gift a black
slave-boy, Midam, who later, was killed by an arrow.
Muhammad claimed that Allah killed him for stealing
booty from Khaybar spoils. Here is a Hadith from
Malik’s Muwatta on this:

Book 21, Number 21.13.25:

   Yahya related to me from Malik from Thawr ibn
Zayd ad-Dili from Abu'l-Ghayth Salim, the
mawla of ibn Muti that Abu Hurayra said, "We
went out with the Messenger of Allah, may
Allah bless him and grant him peace, in the
yearof Khaybar. We did not capture any gold or
silver except for personal effects, clothes,
and baggage. Rifaa ibn Zayd presented a black
slave boy to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah
bless him and grant him peace, whose name was
Midam. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless
him and grant him peace, made for Wadi'l-Qura,
and when he arrived there, Midam was
unsaddling the camel of the Messenger of
Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him
peace, when a stray arrow struck and killed
him. The people said, 'Good luck to him! The
Garden!' The Messenger of Allah said, 'No! By
He in whose hand my self is! The cloak which
he took from the spoils on the Day of Khaybar
before they were distributed will blaze with
fire on him.' When the people heard that, a
man brought a sandal-strap or two
sandal-straps to the Messenger of Allah, may
Allah bless him and grant him peace. The
Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and
grant him peace, said, 'A sandal-strap or two
sandal-straps of fire!' "

After Muhammad finished plundering Khaybar he besieged
the Jews of Wadi al-Qura for some nights then returned
to Medina (see Terror 53, CH. 14 for details).

Chapter Fourteen

‘The enemy is stupid and Allah does protect the
mujahideen….’---Ramzi Binalshibh

Terror Fifty-three

Second Raid Against the Jews at Wadi al-Qura by
Muhammad-June, 628CE

After Muhammad finished the affairs of Khaybar, while
returning to Medina, without any warning, he laid a
siege on the Jewish settlement at Wadi al-Qura, The
site was a Jewish colony. He arrived at Wadi al-Qura
in a late afternoon and besieged the Jews. Sa’d b.
Ubada, the Muslim leader invited the Jews to Islam
without any success So the Muslims attacked the Jews.
The Jews resisted for two days then they surrendered
on similar terms like the Jews of Khaybar and Fadak.
Eleven Jews were slain in this skirmish. A large
amount booty fell in the hands of the Muslims.

With Muhammad was a slave-boy (Midam) who was
presented to him by one of his companions. While the
Muslims were preparing to halt, an arrow hit the
slave-boy killing him. The Muslims hailed his death as
a reward in Paradise, but Muhammad objected saying
that the boy had pilfered a cloak from the booty of
Khaybar and his death was the punishment for stealing
booty. Hearing his words, another Jihadist came
forward and confessed that he too had stolen two
sandals from the loot of Khaybar. Muhammad promised
him the fire of hell.

After the surrender of the Jews at Wadi al-Qura,
Muhammad established his full authority on all the
Jewish tribes of Medina.

While at Wadi al-Qura, Muhammad and his companions
overslept and missed the morning prayer at its
appointed time. He performed ablution and then prayed
and people followed him. He told the congregation that
if one forgets to pray at its appointed time, he could
perform the same prayer when he remembers Him (Allah).

The Muslim army stayed at Wadi al-Qura for four days
then they returned to Medina.

Terror Fifty-four

First Raid Against B. Hawazin at Turbah By Umar b.
al-Khattab-July, 628CE

After returning to Medina from Wadi al-Qura, Muhammad
sent Umar b. al-Khattab with thirty men against a
branch of the tribes of B. Hawazin at Turbah, a
distance of four nights march from Medina. Turbah was
on the way to Sana and Najjran, a Christian enclave.
Umar’s troop travelled by night and hid by day. By the
time the Muslim army arrived at Turbah, B. Hawazin
already got wind of the impending Muslim attack and
they fled. Umar returned to Medina without a fight. As
far as booty was concerned it was a failed robbery.

Terror Fifty-five

Raid on B. Kilab at Nejd by Abu Bakr-July, 628CE

Details on this raid are not available, although it
has been learned that Abu Bakr headed a party against
the Bani Kilab in Nejd. Many were killed and taken as
prisoners. A Hadith from Sunaan Abu Dawud, that
possibly relates to this raid by Abu Bakr,
demonstrates clearly the viciousness of killing by the
Muslims:

Sunaan Abu Dawud: Book 14, Number 2632:

   Narrated Salamah ibn al-Akwa':

   The Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him)
appointed AbuBakr our commander and we fought
with some people who were polytheists, and we
attacked them at night, killing them. Our
war-cry that night was "put to death; put to
death." Salamah said: I killed that night with
my hand polytheists belonging to seven houses.

Terror Fifty-six

First Raid on B. Murrah at Fadak by Bashir Ibn
Sa’d-July, 628CE

Thirty men were sent at the behest of Bashir ibn Sa’d
against the B. Murra in the vicinity of Fadak. These
Bedouins were in the desert when the Muslims attacked
their homesteads. Bashir drove off their camels and
flocks. When the Bedouins returned they pursued the
Muslim invaders, exchanged arrows with the raiders and
rescued their booty. Bashir’s companions were killed.
He suffered injury in his ankle and returned to
Medina.

Terror Fifty-seven

Fourth Raid on B. Thalabah at Mayfah by Ghalib b. Abd
Allah-January, 629CE

Mayfah is ninety-six (96) miles from Medina, towards
Nejd. Muhammad sent Ghalib b. Abd Allah at the behest
of one hundred and thirty (130) men to plunder the
tribes of B. Uwal and B. Thalabah inhabiting this
site. Usmah b. Zayd (the son of Zayd b. Haritha,
Muhammad’s adopted son) joined this team. The attack
was sudden and the Muslims killed mercilessly whomever
they found and drove their camels and goats to Medina.

Usama and one of his companions killed a man, an ally
of B. Murrah who uttered ‘La ilah illa Allah’ i.e.,
embraced Islam at the point of sword. When Usama
returned to Medina and told this story to Muhammad,
Muhammad was displeased and said, “Usamah, who will
[say] to you ‘There is no god but God’?”

Terror Fifty-eight

Second Raid on B. Murrah at Fadak by Ghalib b. Abd
Allah-January, 629CE

After the mishap of Bashir ibn Sa’d (see Terror 55)
during the attempt to rob the B. Murrah, Muhammad
entrusted Ghalib b. Abd Allah, a fierce killer, to mop
up the B. Murrah at Fadak. Muhammad said to al-Zubayr,
another leader of this two hundred men strong team:
“If Allah makes you victorious do not show leniency to
them.” Usama b. Zayd also joined in this pillage. The
Muslims attacked the B. Murrah in the morning;
mercilessly killed many of them; seized their camels,
and drove the herd to Medina.

Terror Fifty-nine

Raid on Ghatafan at al-Jinab in Yaman by Bahir b.
Sa’d-February, 629CE

During the siege of Khaybar (see Terror 52, CH. 13)
Muhammad heard from his guide at Khaybar, Husayl b.
Nuwayrah that a party of Ghatafan, under the
leadership of Uyanah b. Hisn had assembled at
al-Jinab, on the opposite of Khaybar and Wadi al-Qura.
So he despatched Bashir b. Sa’d with three hundred
(300) men along with the guide, Husayl b. Nuwayrah to
subdue the Ghatafan. Bashir’s army travelled by night,
concealed by day till they arrived close to the enemy
site. The Muslims terrorized the tribe; seized a large
number of camels and dispersed the herdsmen. Seeing
the marauding Muslim army, the Ghatafan took shelter
on mountain tops and highlands. The Muslims took booty
and killed a slave of Uyanah b. Hisn. They captured
two men and brought the camels and the prisoners to
Medina.

Terror Sixty

Third Raid on B. Sulaym at Fadak by Ibn al-Awja
al-Sulami-April, 629CE

B. Sulaym were a sister tribe of B. Hawazin and
inhabited the area of Najran and Turbah.

Immediately upon returning to Medina after performing
the Umrah, Muhammad sent Ibn al-Awja al-Sulami with
fifty men to attack B. Sulaym. When Ibn Awja arrived
in the B. Sulaym area, he called them to convert to
Islam. When the infidels refused, the Muslims attacked
them. B. Sulaym fought back, showered the Muslims with
arrows and killed many of them. Ibn Awja was wounded
and escaped to Medina with great difficulty. However,
a year later, the B.Sulaym embraced Islam after
finding that Muhammad was becoming stronger everyday.

Terror Sixty-one

Raid on B. al-Mulawwih at al-Kadid by Ghalib b. Abd
Allah--May, 629CE

Muhammad sent Ghalib b. Abdallah al-Laythi, with
between thirteen and nineteen men to raid the B.
al-Mulawwih at al-Kadid.

When the Muslims arrived at al-Kadid they met a man,
al-Harith b. Malik and took him as a prisoner. He
informed Ghalib that he had come to embrace Islam.
Despite this confession, for safety reasons Ghalib
bound him over and secured him with a rope. Then
Ghalib appointed a Negro slave to guard the prisoner,
issuing strict orders to cut off al-Harith’s head
should he make any trouble. Ghalib then sent a Muslim
who set out and found a settlement. In the afternoon
he lay hidden by lying face down in the ground.

Very soon, a Bedouin man from the settlement came and
spotted him as a suspected intruder and shot two
arrows. Being a clever spy, the Muslim man pulled out
both the arrows and remained motionless. The man
thought it to be an object and left the place. The spy
then waited in ambush until the cattle herd of the
settlement returned in the evening from the pasture.
Then, at night, when the settlement was quiet and
everyone was resting, the Muslims made a sudden attack
on the inhabitants. They killed some of them and drove
away their herd of camels. Meanwhile, the besieged
people raised an alarm and cried out for help.

Fearing reprisal from the aiding party, the marauding
Muslims hurried to leave the place. While exiting,
they also took the prisoner, al-Harith b. Malik, whom
they had left bound and guarded by a sentry. Soon, the
aid party attacked the Muslims. At this hour, a
torrential rain came and nearly flooded the valley
which made an attack difficult by the aiding party of
the settlement. This gave the Muslims time for a quick
exit. They took all the camels with them and brought
them back at Medina; a great deal of booty also fell
on them.

The battle cry of the Muslims on that night was “Kill!
Kill!”

Terror Sixty-two

Raid on B. Laith at al-Kadid-May, 629CE

A few weeks later, the Muslims conducted a raid
against the B. Leith. They were seized near al-Kadid
on the road to Mecca. The Muslims made a surprise
attack on this tribe and took away their camels.
Further details are not available.

Terror Sixty-three

Forced Jizya on Zoroastrians-case 1-June, 629CE

After robbing B. al-Mulawwih Muhammad sent the
Jihadist, al-Ala b. al-Hadrami with a threatening
letter to Mundhir b. Sawa al-Abdi, a Zoroastrian and
the chief of B. Tamim, to exact Jizya tax from him. He
wrote: “In the name of God, the Merciful and
Compassionate. From Muhammad the Prophet, Messenger of
God, to al-Mundhir b. Sawa: Peace be upon you! I
praise to you God, save Whom there is no god.

To proceed: I have received your letter and your
messengers. Whoever prays our prayer, eats of our
sacrifice, and turns to our Qiblah is a Muslim:
permitted to him is what is permitted to Muslims, and
incumbent on whoever refuses is [the payment of] tax.”
A Hadith in Sunaan Abu Dawud, probably related to this
affair. confirms Muhammad’s doctrine, ‘pay Jizya or
die’ (please note here that Magian means Zoroastrian):

Book 19, Number 3038:

Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas:

   A man belonging to Usbadhiyin of the people of
Bahrayn, who were the Magians of Hajar, came
to the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him)
and remained with him (for some time), and
then came out. I asked him: What have Allah
and His Apostle of Allah decided for you? He
replied: Evil. I said: Silent. He said: Islam
or killing. AbdurRahman ibn Awf said: He
accepted jizyah from them. Ibn Abbas said: The
people followed the statement of AbdurRahman
ibn Awf, and they left that which I heard from
the Usbadhi.

Having found no alternative, these Zoroastrians agreed
to pay this ‘protection’ tax to Muhammad. Muhammad
stipulated that the Muslims cannot eat the
Zoroastrian’s sacrificial meat nor the Muslims could
marry their women.

Terror Sixty-four

Forced Jizya on Zoroastrians-case 2-June, 629CE

Muhammad sent Amr b. al-As to Jayfar and Abbad. They
were two Zoroastrian brothers in Uman. They told Amr
that they believed in the ascendancy of Muhammad as a
Prophet and in what he had brought. Being not
satisfied with it, and finding that no booty was
forthcoming, Muhammad imposed Zakat on them and forced
them to pay Jizya tax. On the matter of Zakat, it is
worthwhile to mention that Abu Bakr stipulated that
this Islamic tax must be collected ruthlessly. Here is
a Hadith from Malik’s Muwatta (from the section on
Collecting Zakat and Being Firm In Doing So ) on
collection of Zakat:

Book 17, Number 17.18.31:

Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that
Abu Bakr as-Siddiq said, "If they withhold even a
hobbling cord I will fight them over it."

Terror Sixty-five

Raid on B. Amir at al-Siyii by Shuja ibn Wahb
al-Asadi-July, 629CE

Then Muhammad sent Shuja b. Wahb with a party of
tenty-four (24) men to plunder B. Amir (a branch of
Hawazin tribe) at al-Siyii. Al-Siyii was five nights
journey from Medina. After arriving at the enemy site,
Shuja made a sudden morning-attack on B. Tamim. After
terrorizing and plundering for fifteen days, the
Muslims drove away their camels and sheep as booty.
During this plunder, ten goats were equated to a sheep
for booty distribution. In this plunder each Jihadist
received as his share fifteen camels

Terror Sixty-six

Raid on B. Qudah at Dhat Atlah by Amr b Ka’b
al-Ghifari-July, 629CE

During this time, Muhammad despatched Amr b. Ka’b
al-Ghifari with fifteen men to raid the people of B.
Qudah at Dhat Atlah, on the border of Syria. After
arriving there, Amr called the inhabitants to Islam.
The infidels refused. So Amr besieged the enemy.
However, he faced stiff resistance from his enemy. In
this battle the Muslims were routed. The enemy killed
all of them except one who managed to escape and
returned to Medina. Muhammad was greatly saddened by
this calamity and planned to send a forceful army of
Jihadists to take revenge. This plan was shelved when
Muhammad learnt that the enemy had deserted the place.

Terror Sixty-seven

Raid on Mu’tah by Zayd ibn Haritha-September, 629CE

Mu’tah was a small village near al-Balqa at Damascus
in Syria. After the complete routing of the Muslim
raiding team at Dhat Atlah led by Amr b. Ka’b
al-Ghifari, Muhammad was seeking an opportunity to
attack this part of the Byzantine Empire and to teach
the mainly Christian inhabitants there a lesson. This
was Muhammad’s first penetration into Byzantine
Empire.

Another version of the reason for this invasion was
that Muhammad sent a messenger with a letter to the
Byzantine governor of Busra. This messenger was
murdered by Shurahbil, the chief of Ma’ab or Mu’ta.
The chief of Mu’ta was called Shurahbil, son of Amr.
Muhammad immediately retaliated by assembling three
thousand soldiers. He was also emboldened by his
return from a successful raid on Khaybar. His victory
at Khaybar gave him the confidence that he was
powerful enough to make an onslaught on the mighty
Byzantine Empire in Syria.

He appointed Zayd b. Haritha to lead this expedition,
instructing him to march to the spot where Muhammad’s
messenger was slain; summon the inhabitants to embrace
Islam, and to kill them if they refused to become
Muslims. He gave directive that if Zayd was killed
then Jafar b. Abi Talib (Ali’s brother, and Muhammad’s
cousin brother) would be the commander; if Jafar is
killed then Abd Allah b. Rawaha would be in command.
So three thousand Jihadists marched out, equipped with
swords and horses. Khalid b. Walid also joined this
expedition, but as a common fighter; he was not given
a senior rank at this stage, presumably because of his
recent conversion to Islam. When they were ready for
the march, Muhammad came out and bade them farewell.
Some Jihadists recalled verse 19:71, decreeing the
fate of a human being. Muhammad escorted this Jihad
team up to Thaniyat, in the outskirts of Medina and
amidst a band of crying Jihadists said, “May Allah
defend you and may you come back pious and bring
booty.”

The Muslim army went forward and encamped at Mu’an, a
village in Syria. While there, Zayd received the
startling intelligence of the preparation of
Surahbil’s alliance. He got the information that the
enemy was encamped at Ma’ab in the territory of
al-Balqa. The Muslim army also heard the rumour that
Surahbil, together with Theodora, the brother of
Heraclius was in the field with one hundred thousand
soldiers. Another one hundred thousand Roman soldiers
were readying themselves to join in the fight.
However, the Syrian army was composed of Romans and,
partly of the semi-Christian tribe of the desert.

Many Arab tribes like Lakham, Judham, Balqayn, Bahran
and Bali had also joined Heraclius’ party-Zayd heard.

After learning the news of assemblage of such a
formidable Roman army and its accessory parties, the
Muslims were nervous but stayed at Mu’an for two
nights, contemplating about their course of action.
Some of them wanted to send an urgent message to
Muhammad for a reinforcement to meet the alarming army
of a hundred thousand men of the Byzantine emperor.
However, Abd Allah b. Rawaha invigorated his men with
extreme Jihadi zeal and imbued them not to be cowed by
the numerical superiority of the enemy. This was the
best opportunity for a martyr-he exhorted. His men
fully agreed with Abd Allah b. Rawaha and decided to
engage the enemy in a fight.

The Jihadists then marched on and when they were
within the boundary of Ma’ab they met the army of
Heraclius at a village called Masharif. When the enemy
came close to the Muslim army, the Muslims took
shelter in the village of Mu’tah. A vicious battle
took place there. Zayd b.Haritha fought gallantly but
soon was killed by a javelin from the enemy. It is
said that his body was cu into two pieces. Following
the instruction of Muhammad, Jafar b. Abi Talib took
up the fight. He too fought valiantly until he was
also killed in the combat. After the demise of Jafar
b. Abi Talib, Abd Allah b. Rawaha took up the banner
and went forward to continue the battle.

Abd Allah b. Rawaha pressed ahead but soon was killed.
Then Thabit b. Arqam hoisted the banner and urged the
Muslims to select a leader from amongst themselves.
The Muslims chose Khalid b. Walid as their new
commander. However, the Muslim ranks were already
broken with twelve Jihadists killed; the Byzantine
casualties being unknown. However, through a series of
ingenious and rapid movements Khalid was able to bring
back discipline in the Muslim army ranks. He then
played a trick by deluding the Romans that a great
army of Muslim soldiers was expected at any time. The
trick worked. The Muslims retreated and so did the
Byzantine army. Thus Khalid started marching towards
Medina, saving further losses to the Muslim army. A
messenger ran ahead of the Muslim army to Medina to
inform an anxious Muhammad the terrible news of the
Muslim defeat.

In the pulpit of his mosque, Muhammad informed his
congregation that he had a premonition that Zayd had
attained martyrdom. Then he also testified the
martyrdoms of Jafar and Abdallah b. Rawaha as well as
the eventual ascent of Khalid b. Walid as the
commander of the Muslims. He told the congregation:
“Now I have seen them in heaven sitting in thrones
facing each other like brothers. In some of them I
observed an aversion for using sword. And I saw Jafar
like an angel with two wings smeared with blood feet
dyed (in blood).” The Muslims were amazed at the
predictive power of their Prophet. He gave the title
‘Sword of God’ to Khalid b. Walid. Then he exhorted
his followers to hasten and join in to reinforce the
Muslim army. So they came out and went forward in
extreme heat to join their Jihadi compatriots. But it
was too late. The Muslims were already in retreat.

When the Muslim army was in the vicinity of Medina,
people started to throw dust at them, condemning them
for withdrawing from the battle. Muhammad pacified
this enraged crowd by shouting that the returning
Muslims did not flee from fighting but that they would
return to fight again.

Even with such passionate pleading, the crowd was not
satisfied; they chased Muhammad and forced him to take
shelter in the room of Umm Salamah, one of his wives.
When people asked for the reason why she did not
attend prayer with Muhammad, she replied:

“By God, he cannot leave the house! Every time he goes
out, people shout, ‘Did you flee in the way of God?’
So he stayed in his house and does not go out.”

Chapter Fifteen

‘The broad mass of a nation …..will more easily fall
victim to a big lie than to a small one’---Adolf
Hitler (1889-1945)

Terror Sixty-seven

Raid on B. Qudah at Dhat al-Salasil by Amr b.
al-As-September, 629CE

Having suffered a terrible defeat in the hands of B.
Qudah at Dhat Atlah, coupled with the ignoble retreat
of the Muslim army from Mu’tah, Muhammad’s prestige
was greatly affected. It is said that he also received
intelligence that a number of tribes, including B.
Qudah were now preparing to attack Medina. To salvage
his reputation he now empowered Amr b. al-As, the new
convert of Islam, to push for a decisive raid on the
stubborn B. Qudah tribe. Amr b. al-As was very furious
that some of these tribes had taken the side of the
Byzantine party during the Mu’tah battle. It was time
to punish them-Muhammad determined.

So with three hundred (300) men and thirty horses, Amr
b. al-As set out to decimate the rebellious B. Qudah
who were settled at Dhat al-Salasil. It was at a
distance of ten days march from Medina. Amr b. al-As’
grandmother (i.e., the mother of al-As b. Wail, the
father of Amr b. al-As) was a woman from Qudah or Bali
tribe and Muhammad sent Amr b. al-As to convert her
and her people to Islam by force. When Amr arrived at
Dhat al-Salasil he found that the enemy had heavily
outnumbered the Muslims.

Because of the feeble Islamic forces at his disposal
Amr b. al-As sought reinforcement from Muhammad. The
messenger of Allah quickly sent Abu Bakr b. Quhafa
with an additional two hundred (200) men to assist Amr
b. al-As. Thus, the total number of men now numbered
five hundred (500).

Another version of this raid runs like this:

Muhammad sent Amr b. al-As to the territory of Bali
(Bali is a branch of Qudah tribe) and Udhrah to gain
their assistance for an expedition to Syria that he
had been planning for some time. Amr b. al-As’
grandmother (i.e., the mother of al-As b. Wali, Amr b.
al-As’ father) lived in Bali. So Muhammad sent Amr b.
al-As to her people to invite them to Islam and to
earn their goodwill. After ten days of marching, while
on his way to Bali, Amr b. al-As came across with B.
Judham, another tribe at Dhat al-Salasil and he was
frightened at their huge number. He sent an emergency
message to Muhammad for additional men that Muhammad
quickly complied with.

Muhammad sent this reinforcement, along with Abu
Ubaydah b. al-Jarrah, Abu Bakr and Umar. Abu Ubaydah
was made the leader, and Muhammad instructed them not
to fight over the leadership when they had arrived at
Dhat al-Salasil. Nonetheless, despite such
instruction, when Abu Ubaydah arrived at Dhat
al-Salasil a dispute arose regarding the leadership;
Amr b. al-As insisted that Abu Ubaydah was only a
reinforcement but the leadership still rested on Amr
b. al-As. Abu Ubaydah agreed with Amr b. al-As, and
Amr led the worship.

With this increased number of Muslim army, Amr b.
al-As charged his enemy with much vigor and ferocity.
The B. Qudah fighters went in panic and dispersed.
After subduing the enemy the Muslims returned to
Medina. No historian gives any detail about the booty
the Muslims gained in this raid.

Terror Sixty-eight

Raid on B. Juhayna at al-Khabat (the expedition of
fish) by Abu Ubaydah ibn Jarrah-October, 629CE

In the next month, Muhammad sent Abu Ubaydah b. Jarrah
along with three hundred (300) men to attack and
punish the tribe of Juhaynah at al-Khabat, on the
seacoast, five nights journey from Medina. This was a
very difficult expedition and the Muslims suffered
from intense hunger-so much so, that they had to
divide the dates by number. They even ate the leaves
of trees for a month. However, there was no fighting
as the enemy had fled when they heard of the arrival
of the Muslims.

In the end, the Muslims caught a dead-sea creature (a
whale) that came ashore and ate it for half a month
(or twenty days, according to Ibn Ishak). This is why
this raid is also known as the ‘expedition of fish.’
They brought some of that stale meat to Muhammad and
he ate it too.

Sahih Bukhari records that the Muslims ate the
mountain like fish for eighteen days. Here is the
Hadith:

Volume 3, Book 44, Number 663:

   Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah:

   "Allah's Apostle sent an army towards the east
coast and appointed Abu 'Ubaida bin Al-Jarrah
as their chief, and the army consisted of
three-hundred men including myself. We marched
on till we reached a place where our food was
about to finish. Abu- 'Ubaida ordered us to
collect all the journey food and it was
collected. My (our) journey food was dates.
Abu 'Ubaida kept on giving us our daily ration
in small amounts from it, till it was
exhausted. The share of everyone of us used to
be one date only." I said, "How could one date
benefit you?" Jabir replied, "We came to know
its value when even that too finished." Jabir
added, "When we reached the sea-shore, we saw
a huge fish which was like a small mountain.
The army ate from it for eighteen days. Then
Abu 'Ubaida ordered that two of its ribs be
fixed and they were fixed in the ground. Then
he ordered that a she-camel be ridden and it
passed under the two ribs (forming an arch)
without touching them."

Terror Sixty-nine

Beheading the leader of B. Jusham at al Ghabah by Abd
Allah ibn Hadrad -November, 629CE

Abd Allah b. Abi Hadrad al-Aslami, a Jihadist, went to
Muhammad asking him for two hundred (200) Dirhams
(about US$ 1,000) for the dowry he had to pay for his
new bride, since he could not consummate his marriage
as he was unable to pay this dowry. Muhammad claimed
that he had no money to help Hadrad. A few days later,
a group of B. Jusham, led by Qays b. Rifaah encamped
at Ghabah, a nearby pastureland. It is alleged that
they arrived there to gather their tribe to fight
Muhammad. Muhammad called Abd Allah b. Abi Hadrad and
two other Muslims and instructed them either to
capture and bring Qays b. Rifaah or to bring further
information about their movement.

The trio proceeded, armed with arrows and swords and
riding a weak camel. When they approached the
encampment in the evening, Abd Allah hid himself from
the enemy camp and asked his two companions to conceal
themselves somewhere else. He then told two of his
Jihadi comrades that he was going on an assassination
mission and if they happen to hear the cry of “Allahu
Akbar” from afar then they should also shout “Allahu
Akbar,” rush out and attack the enemy simultaneously
with him (Abd Allah b. abi Hadrad al-Aslami).

They waited until the darkness of night fell. During
this time Qays b. Rifaa ventured outside his camp to
look for one of their herdsmen who were late in
returning to the camp. Qays came out of his camp
defying his companions warning to not to venture out
during the darkness of night. When he was within the
attacking range, Abd Allah b. abi-Hadrad shot an arrow
that hit Qays in his heart killing him instantly. Abd
Allah then ran forward with his sword and cut off
Qays’ head and shouted “Allahu Akbar.” His two
companions responded immediately with “Allahu Akbar.”
The enemy was now in panic and terror and they took to
the heel, taking away their wives and children. Abd
Allah and his companions drove away their herd of
camels, goats and sheep and brought them to Muhammad.
Abd Allah presented Muhammad with the bloody head of
Qays b. Rifaa. Muhammad was extremely pleased
beholding the severed head of Qays b. Rifaa and
rewarded Abd Allah with thirteen camels (worth about
US$ 4,550) from the booty. With this booty Abd Allah
paid his bride-money and consummated his marriage.

It is reported by al-Waqidi that the Jihadists also
took four women, including one very beautiful and sexy
girl. Muhammad gave her to Abu Qatadah, another
Jihadist. When one of Muhammad’s good friends,
Mahmiyah b. al-Juz, informed him about her extreme
beauty, Muhammad wanted her back from Abu Qatadah.
But Abu Qatadah objected, saying: “I purchased her
from the spoils.” The Messenger of God said, “Give her
to me.” So he had no choice but to hand her over to
Muhammad. Muhammad gave her as a present to
Mahimiyah b. al-Jaz al-Zubaydi.

Terror Seventy

Raid on a passing caravan at Batn al-Idam by Abd Allah
b. Abi Hadrad-November, 629CE

Muhammad was so pleased with the success of the
terrorist, Abd Allah b. Abi Hadrad al-Aslami (see
Terror 69 above), that soon after the gory and
senseless beheading of Qays b. Rifaa, he despatched
this extremely fanatic, fierce Jihadist, along with
Abu Qatadah al-Harith b. Ribi and a group of eight
terrorists to make a raid on a passing caravan at
Idam, north of Medina. This raiding party arrived at
Idam and waylaid for the passing caravan. A Bedouin
caravan passed by and they greeted the Muslims with
“Assalamu Alaikum.” But the Jihadists/terrorists
attacked this caravan anyway because of past enmity,
killed the leader of the caravan, and made off with
their camel and food. They returned to Muhammad and
told him the story. Allah promptly released verse 4:94
asking the raiding party to be discriminating while
committing a plunder. Historians like Ibn Sa’d
describes this raid as a prelude to attack on Mecca as
Muhammad wanted to divert people’s attention from his
‘real’ intention, while covertly preparing to occupy
Mecca.

Terror Seventy-one

Raid on B. Khudra at Suria by Abu Qatadah-December,
629CE

This was a petty expedition against the tribe of
Khudra a sub-clan of B. Ghatafan that yielded a large
plunder. Abu Qatadah led this raid in which he seized
all the property of B. Khudra.

In this way Muhammad exacted his revenge on the tribes
who dared to side with the Christians of Byzantine
Empire. He became a very fearsome and powerful war
monger and many smaller tribes decided to join the
Muslim ranks to save themselves from Muhammad’s
unbound wrath; if you cannot beat them then join
them-they thought. They also found a good opportunity
to enrich themselves with the plunder, if they joined
the Islamic Jihadists-they thought correctly.

Besides the above reasons, many tribes were also
forced to pledge their allegiance to him. Among them
were: Bani Dzobian, B. Fazara, with their chief,
Uyana. B. Hisn, Bani Sulaym, a powerful tribe in the
Hejaz was also forced to join in Islam (see Terror 60,
CH. 14).

The Prophet Muhammad, truly, had now become a
ferocious warlord.

Chapter Sixteen

‘God knows, if we did possess (a chemical bomb), we
wouldn’t hesitate one second to use it’---Abu Musab
al-Zarqawi

Terror Seventy-two

The Occupation of Mecca by Muhammad-January, 630CE

After the debacle at Mu’tah, Muhammad remained in
Mecca for about two months without significant raids
or plunder, except for those described in CH.15. Then
he received the news that a person, belonging to B.
Bakr, a confederate of the Quraysh had killed a man
from B. Khuzaa’h at a watering place at Mecca. The
Khuzaa’h tribe was in alliance with Muhammad and it
was reported that the person killed was a Muslim. This
attack on Khuzaa’h was in retaliation for a long drawn
blood feud between these two warring tribes. This
cycle of revenge and counter revenge had started a
long time before Muhammad was born. However, during
the Hudaibiyah treaty, it was hoped that peace would
finally be established between them by granting them
freedom to choose whatever party they thought was
friendly to them.

Some Quraysh men also joined in this melee. Muhammad
considered this minor skirmish as breaking the
Hudaybiah pact that was drawn between the Quraysh and
Muhammad. A representative of Khuzaa’h, Amr b. Salim
al-Khuzai hastened to Medina to inform Muhammad of
this incident and to seek his help. Muhammad was not
at all interested in peacemaking. He made no attempt
to mediate the matter with the Quraysh; instead, using
this trivial incidence as an alibi he found a golden
opportunity to attack the Meccans. In fact, after the
great plunder at Khaybar Allah had revealed to him in
verse 48:27 about his conquest of the Sacred
Mosque--that is, the Ka’ba in Mecca. This new
development made Muhammad confirm absolutely that
it was a great opportunity sent by Allah.

Having heard what the envoy from the Khuzaa’h had to
say, Muhammad promised his steadfast help for them.
At that time, a large cloud engulfed the sky, and a
superstitious Muhammad used that as proof of his
promise to B. Khuzaa’h.

Very soon, another delegation headed by Budayl b.
Warqa, a Khuzaa’h met Muhammad at Medina. Muhammad
reiterated his assurance towards them. Having been
re-assured by Muhammad, Budayl departed for Mecca.

Meanwhile, the Quraysh, realising the gravity of the
situation, wanted to have a dialogue with Muhammad to
come to a peaceful settlement without bloodshed as
well as to extend the term of the treaty. They sent
Abu Sufyan b Harb to have a discussion with Muhammad
to bring calm. On his way to Medina, Abu Sufyan met
Budyal b. Warqa at Usfan and enquired whether Budayl
had a dialogue with Muhammad or not.

Budayl told a blatant lie to Abu Sufyan that he had
not met Muhammad. But Abu Sufyan, at hindsight,
examined the camel droppings of Budayl and correctly
concluded that Budayl, had indeed met Muhammad; for,
Budayl’s camel droppings had the distinctive Medina
pits of dates that the camel had been fed. Abu Sufyan
was now quite apprehensive that Muhammad was planning
for some retaliatory action. He was determined to
prevent further bloodshed over such a small incidence.

Upon his arrival at Medina, Abu Sufyan first met his
daughter, Umm Habibah bt. Abu Sufyan. Having recently
returned from Ethiopia, she had become Muhammad’s
ninth wife when her husband died in Ethiopia. When Abu
Sufyan entered her room and was about to sit on the
bed of Muhammad, she did not allow him to rest there.
She berated Abu Sufyan and told her father that as a
polytheist he was an unclean person, and was not
entitled to sit on Muhammad’s hallowed bed. Abu Sufyan
was utterly displeased at her own daughter’s
ungracious behaviour towards him and told her that
evil had betaken her since she had left him and had
accepted Islam.

Then Abu Sufyan came to Muhammad and spoke with him
about this matter, but Muhammad kept silent and showed
no intention of mitigating the issue through dialogue.
Abu Sufyan approached Abu Bakr to speak to Muhammad
about the case; Abu Bakr refused. Then he met Umar b.
Khattab, but Umar threatened him with war. In
desperation, Abu Sufyan went to meet Ali while Ali was
with Fatima, the daughter of Muhammad. Her little son,
al-Hasan b. Ali was also with her. Abu Sufyan implored
Ali for the sake of kinship to intercede on his behalf
to avoid the fighting. Ali utterly disappointed Abu
Sufyan by saying that Muhammad’s mind had already been
made up, no intercession would work. Then, as a last
resort, Abu Sufyan turned to Muhammad’s daughter
Fatima saying, “Daughter of Muhammad, don’t you want
to command your little son here to make peace among
the people, so that he will be lord of the Arabs
forever?”

Fatima replied, “By God, my little son is not old
enough to make peace among the people, and no one can
do so against the will of the Messenger of God.” When
Abu Sufyan realised that his case was hopeless, he
sought the advice of Ali as to the appropriate course
of action for a peaceful settlement of the matter. Ali
further let down Abu Sufyan by saying that nothing
could be done to change the mind of Messenger of
Allah. A frustrated Abu Sufyan went to the
congregation in the mosque and said, “People, I hereby
make peace among the people.” Having implored the
Muslims for peace, Abu Sufyan mounted his camel and
departed for Mecca.

When Abu Sufyan arrived at Mecca, the Quraysh asked
him about the outcome of his peace mission. They heard
the full story of how inflexible and belligerent
Muhammad was. The Meccans chided Abu Sufyan that he
had, indeed, been played out by Muhammad.

Meanwhile, after Abu Sufyan had left, Muhammad asked
his people to prepare themselves for a raid, but kept
the precise destination a closely guarded secret. Even
Aisha, the child bride of Muhammad, was kept in the
dark. To make sure that no one knew what was in his
mind, he sent a contingent of Jihadists under the
joint leadership of Abd Allah b. Abi Hadrad al-Aslami
and Abu Qatadah al-Harith b. Ribi, to Batn. Idam, in
the north of Medina to raid a passing Meccan caravan
there (see Terror 70, CH. 15). He played this ruse so
that people thought his mission was directed towards
north; while, in secret, Muhammad was preparing a
sudden attack on Mecca when the Quraysh were least
prepared for it. It was indeed a great ploy and
undoubtedly reflects on Muhammad’s great acumen and
sapiency in the conduct of terror, plunder and
warfare. He was absolutely cagey in his meticulous
plan for the raid on Mecca.

When everything was fully ready, Muhammad summoned
his people and told them of his intention of making a
surprise attack on Mecca. He also invited many other
neighbouring tribes to join him in the occupation of
Mecca. Fierce verses, eloquent speeches and
invigorating sermons were spread out to rouse the
Jihadists for this assault on Mecca.

While this readiness for the impending war was going
on, a Muslim, Hatib b. Abi Baltaah wrote a letter to
the Quraysh, informing them of the readiness of
Muhammad to attack Mecca. An unlettered woman-slave
carried the letter on her head-covering by hiding it
inside her hair and proceeded to deliver it to the
Quraysh. Muhammad received the news of undercover
work of Hatib from heaven and sent out Ali and another
Muslim to arrest the woman. They moved fast and caught
up with the woman and searched her saddle but found
nothing. When Ali threatened to strip her, she took
out the letter from the hidden place and handed it
over to Ali b. Abi Talib. Ali brought the letter to
Muhammad. Having been informed of the content of the
letter, Muhammad summoned Hatib. b. Abi Baltaah and
asked for an explanation for what he had done. Hatib
said that, as he had all the members of his family
still at Mecca, he simply wanted to warn them to save
them. At this, an irate Umar sought Muhammad’s
permission to cut off the head of Hatib. But Muhammad
forgave Hatib, because Hatib was a fierce fighter for
the Muslims at Badr. Allah promptly sent down verse
60:1-4 on forgiving Hatib b. Abi Baltah.

With full preparation to lay a siege on Mecca,
Muhammad left Medina on January 1, 630, but he kept
his exact destination a secret to his followers. Some
thought he was going to invade the Hawazin tribe, some
thought he was going to plunder the Thaqif people,
some said he was going to fight the Quraysh. Although
he was carrying arms, he appointed no military
commander and displayed no banner, thus making his
purpose of marching a real enigma to all. There were
between eight and ten thousand of men under the
command of Muhammad who left Mecca with full alacrity.
Two of his wives, Zaynab bt. Jahsh and Umm Salamah,
accompanied him on this occasion.

It was the month of Ramadan; Muhammad fasted and so
did his followers who trailed him to Mecca. When he
halted at al-Kadid, the B. Sulaym leader Uyanah b.
Hisn joined him. As he proceeded, many other smaller
tribes residing within the vicinity also joined with
Muhammad. When they asked Muhammad about his purpose
of advance, Muhammad maintained his reticence. He
broke his fast at al-Kadid and told his followers that
they could observe the remaining fasts or discontinue
if they wished; then he proceeded ahead and put up his
camp at Marr al-Zahran after eight days of marching.
Another one thousand-seven hundred (1,700) members
from various nearby tribes also joined him in the rush
for Mecca. Up to this point, the news of Muhammad’s
advance to Mecca was not known to the Quraysh. On the
night Muhammad encamped at Marr al-Zahran, he ordered
his Jihadists to light individual fires. So, ten
thousand fires were kindled giving the impression of a
massive mobilization of troops. Abu Sufyan b. Harb
along with Hakim b. Hizam and Budayl b. Warqa went out
to gather information about Muhammad’s intention.

When Muhammad halted at Marr al-Zahran, al-Abbas b.
Abd al-Muttalib met him. As written in a previous part
of this series, al-Abbas was actually a secret agent
of Muhammad, feeding him with sensitive information
about the movement of the Quraysh army. Being a
top-notch businessman and a banker, al-Abbas was a
smart, astutely worldly person. When he found, beyond
a shadow of doubt, that his nephew (Muhammad) was
strong enough, he joined him, but kept that a closely
guarded secret from the Quraysh. He was warmly
welcomed with favor and affection by Muhammad.

The reason of al-Abbas’ visit to Muhammad was to
secure a pledge of safety for the Meccans; for, he
feared that an onslaught by so many Muslim Jihadists
would completely decimate the Quraysh forever, ruining
his flourishing business. He told Muhammad that once
he got a pledge of safety from him, he would inform
whoever he ventures to meet in the street so that the
message of security would be passed to all in Mecca.

Muhammad marched forward and when he halted at Niq
al-Uqh, a place between Mecca and Medina, Abu Sufyan
b. al-Harith b. Abd al-Muttalib (not Abu Sufyan b.
Harb; Abu Sufyan b. al-Harith was the paternal cousin
of Muhammad and a poet) and another Quraysh sought an
audience with Muhammad. At first, Muhammad declined to
meet them, as he (Muhammad) claimed that this duo had
previously tormented him while he was in Mecca. When
these two Quraysh told Muhammad’s wife, Umm Salamah,
that they would go on a huger strike if Muhammad did
not meet them, Muhammad’s stony heart was slightly
softened. The duo met Muhammad and became Muslims.
Ibn Ishak reports that an irate Muhammad punched Abu
Sufyan b.al-Harith in the chest for his past action of
hitting Muhammad. Abu Sufyan b. al-Harith then
requested Muhammad to implore Allah to exonerate his
(Abu Sufyan al-Harith) past sins.

After meeting Muhammad and securing his pledge of
safety, al-Abbas set out to return to Mecca. While he
reached al-Arak, he met Abu Sufyan b. Harb and Hakim
b. Hizam and another Quraysh who were on their way to
investigate what was going on. When they saw the huge
fire that Muhammad’s followers had lit they were
greatly overwhelmed. They had never seen such a
massive show of military power before.

When Abu Sufyan asked al-Abbas about the situation,
the latter informed him that Muhammad had marched with
ten thousand Muslims to invade Mecca and that if Abu
Sufyan would dare to visit Muhammad, the latter would
cut off his head. Having had made no preparation to
meet such a menacing attack from the Muslims, a
nervous and distressed Abu Sufyan sought the advice of
al-Abbas. Al-Abbas took Abu Sufyan behind the mule he
(al-Abbas) was riding. The other two mates of Abu
Sufyan followed on foot. The duo then passed by the
groupings of Muslim soldiers and came to the camp of
Umar b. Khattab. Umar rushed out with naked sword to
kill Abu Sufyan. So, al-Abbas moved fast to escape
Umar. Then both the party (i.e., Umar and Abu Sufyan
with al-Abbas) arrived at the camp of Muhammad. First,
Umar entered at the camp of Muhammad and sought his
permission to cut off the head Abu Sufyan. Al-Abbas
then pleaded with Muhammad that he had given the
pledge of protection to Abu Sufyan. On the passionate
plea of al-Abbas Muhammad sent the message that he
would like to meet Abu Sufyan in the morning, next
day. Abu Sufyan was now in tenterhook and passed an
agonizing night at Umar’s camp.

In the morning, next day, Umar took Abu Sufyan to meet
Muhammad. When a vaunted Muhammad extolled that he was
the Messenger of Allah, Abu Sufyan expressed his doubt
on his claim. Al-Abbas quickly warned Abu Sufyan that
he should immediately submit to Islam, lest Muhammad
cut off his head. This is what al-Abbas said, “Woe to
you! Recite the testimony of truth before, by God,
your head is cut off.” So, a frightened Abu Sufyan, to
save his life, had no choice but to become a Muslim on
the spot.

There were a few other compelling reasons for Abu
Sufyan b. Harb to surrender so easily to Muhammad.
Previously, he had lost his trusted and able military
general, Khalid b. Walid to Muhammad when he (Khalid)
became a Muslim and joined Muhammad in the business of
plunder. Moreover, the marauding Jihadists had blocked
the northern and southern trade routes of the Quraysh
on which their livelihood was totally dependent. To
add more to their misfortune, a severe famine gripped
the Meccans. It is apprehended that this famine was
also the creation of Muhammad. Sourcing ibn Hisham,
Hamidullah quotes, “When Thumamah ibn Uthal, a
chieftain of Yamamah, stopped at the instance of the
Prophet, exports of grain historians record that a
famine in Mecca was the result.” Needless to say, all
these unfortunate circumstances made Abu Sufyan a
desperate person and forced him to run to Muhammad
just to save the lives of the Meccans from a
blood-thirsty army that was ready to pounce on Mecca.

Then al-Abbas implored Muhammad to grant Abu Sufyan
some glory as a token for his conversion to Islam. So
Muhammad said, “Yes, whoever enters the house of Abu
Sufyan shall be safe; anyone who enters the sanctuary
shall be safe; and anyone who locks his door behind
him will be safe.” In this pledge of safety, sanctuary
meant the area around Ka’ba.

Nonetheless, Sahih Muslim records that despite this
immunity, Muhammad instructed that whoever is found at
the top of mount Safa is to be killed. Here is the Hadith:

Sahih Muslim: Book 019, Number 4396:

   It has been narrated on the authority of
Abdullah b. Rabah who said: We came to
Mu'awiya b. Abu Sufyan as a deputation and Abu
Huraira was among us. Each of us would prepare
food for his companions turn by turn for a
day. (Accordingly) when it was my turn I said:
Abu Huraira, it is my turn today. So they came
to my place. The food was not yet ready, so I
said to Abu Huraira: I wish you could narrate
to us a tradition from the Messenger of Allah
(may peace be upon him) until the food was
ready. (Complying with my request) Abu Huraira
said: We were with the Messenger of Allah (may
peace be upon him) on the day of the Conquest
of Mecca. He appointed Khalid b. Walid as
commander of the right flank, Zubair as
commander of the left flank, and Abu 'Ubaida
as commander of the foot-soldiers (who were to
advance) to the interior of the valley. He
(then) said: Abu Huraira, call the Ansar to
me. So I called out to them and they came
hurriedly. He said: O ye Assembly of the
Ansaar, do you see the ruffians of the
Quraish? They said: Yes. He said: See, when
you meet them tomorrow, wipe them out. He
hinted at this with his hand, placing his
right hand on his left and said: You will meet
us at as-Safa'. (Abu Huraira continued):
Whoever was seen by them that day was put to
death. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be
upon him) ascended the mount of as-Safa'. The
Ansar also came there and surrounded the
mount. Then came Abu Sufyan and said:
Messenger of Allah, the Quraish have perished.
No member of the Quraish tribe will survive
this day. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be
upon him) said: Who enters the house of Abu
Safyin will be safe, who lays down arms will
be safe, who locks his door will be safe.
(some of) the Ansar said: (After all) the man
has been swayed by tenderness towards his
family and love for his city. At this, Divine
inspiration descended upon the Messenger of
Allah (may peace be upon him). He said: You
were saying that the man has been swayed by
tenderness towards his family and love for his
city. Do you know what my name is? I am
Muhammad, the bondman of God and His
Messenger. (He repeated this thrice.) I left
my native place for the take of Allah and
joined you. So I will live with you and die
with you. Now the Ansar said: By God, we said
(that) only out of our greed for Allah and His
Messenger. He said: Allah and His Apostle
testify to you and accept your apology.

After his conversion to Islam and having secured the
pledge of safety from Muhammad, Abu Sufyan hurriedly
went ahead of the Muslim army’s entry to Mecca and
announced the guarantee of safety for all Meccans by
Muhammad. The utterly terrorised Meccans dispersed
and hurried to their homes, or headed to the sacred
sanctuary - the Ka’ba. Many of them also proceeded
towards Abu Sufyan’s house to save their lives from
the imminent attack by the Muslims.

Meanwhile, after the departure of Abu Sufyan and Hakim
b. Hizam, Muhammad sent al-Zubayr giving him his
banner and commanded him to plant the banner in the
upper part of Mecca (i.e., the northern mountain pass)
and instructed him not to depart from where he was
posted. Muhammad entered Mecca from this site.

Muhammad commanded Khalid b. Walid and the recent
converts like, B. Sulaym, Qudaah etc. to enter Mecca
through the lower part of Mecca (i.e., the southern
highway to Yemen). This was the site where the B. Bakr
was. Despite the surrender by Abu Sufyan, the Quraysh
leader some diehard Quraysh, under the command of
Ikrimah b. Abi Jahl would not let the Muslims walk
through Mecca unchallenged. So they mobilized a B.
al-Harith b. Abd Manat and the Ahabish and other minor
tribes in this part Mecca to fight Muhammad’s army.
Khalid was appointed to fight these people there.
Muhammad gave instruction to Khalid to fight only
those who fight with them. The army of Ikrimah
resisted Khalid’s aggression, so he fought back but
lost the battle and took to flight. Ikrimah b. Abi
Jahl was one of those who fled. Twenty-four (or
twenty-eight as per Muir) of the polytheists were
killed. This was the only fight in Mecca. However, a
section of al-Zubayr’s soldiers took a separate path
than the one stipulated by Muhammad. They blocked the
western route to the seacoast known as Kada road. The
eastern and the northern routes were blocked by
Muhammad’s party. Thus, there was a four-pronged
attack on Mecca, from which the Quraysh found very
difficult to escape. Despite this siege all around,
al-Zubayr’s army met with some Quraysh soldiers on the
slope of Kada and the Quraysh killed a few of them.
Then Muhammad entered Mecca where al-Zubayr had
planted his banner. It was January 11, 630, ten days
after Muhammad had left Medina. Many Meccan people
swarmed him to embrace Islam. Muhammad stayed among
them for half a month.

When Muhammad entered Mecca he granted a general
amnesty to the Meccans except for eight people (or ten
people, according to Ibn Sa’d). He ordered that those
were to be killed even if they were found under the
curtains of Ka’ba. Hitherto, shedding of blood in the
holy precinct was strictly forbidden by the
polytheists. Muhammad wanted to maintain that old
tradition, but to quench his extreme thirst for
revenge he proclaimed that Allah had permitted only
him to cause bloodshed in the holy sanctuary, just for
a few hours. Here is a Sahi Hadith from Sahhi Bukhari
on Muhammad’s exclusive right to shed blood at the
holy sanctuary:

Volume 3, Book 34, Number 303:

   Narrated Ibn 'Abbas:

   Allah's Apostle said, "Allah made Mecca a
sanctuary and it was neither permitted for
anyone before, nor will it be permitted for
anyone after me (to fight in it). And fighting
in it was made legal for me for a few hours of
a day only. None is allowed to uproot its
thorny shrubs or to cut down its trees or to
chase its game or to pick up its Luqata
(fallen things) except by a person who would
announce it publicly." 'Abbas bin
'Abdul-Muttlib requested the Prophet, "Except
Al-Idhkhir, for our goldsmiths and for the
roofs of our houses." The Prophet said,
"Except Al-Idhkhir." 'Ikrima said, "Do you
know what is meant by chasing its game? It is
to drive it out of the shade and sit in its
place." Khalid said, "('Abbas said:
Al-Idhkhir) for our goldsmiths and our
graves."

Muhammad’s unbound wrath was especially reserved for
those who apostatised from Islam. Among them was 1.Abd
Allah b. Sa’d. His crime was that be became an
apostate after embracing Islam. He was a scribe of
Muhammad, but soon found out the trickery of
Muhammad’s claim of divine revelation, left Islam and
returned to Mecca. When Muhammad wanted Abd Allah b.
Sa’d killed, he fled to Uthman, his foster brother.

When the din and bustle of Mecca invasion had
subsided, Uthman took Abd Allah ibn Sa’d for an
audience with Muhammad and to seek his mercy upon him.
When Uthman implored Muhammad to show mercy on Abd
Allah ibn Sa’d, he (Muhammad) kept silence for a long
time before saying, ‘yes.’ When Abd Allah ibn Sa’d and
Uthman left, Muhammad’s companions asked him about his
long silence. Muhammad said that his long hush was
meant for someone to stand up and kill Abd Allah ibn
Sa’d. Then one Ansar asked Muhammad as to why the
latter did not give a signal to kill Abd Allah ibn
Sa’d. Muhammad replied, “A prophet does not kill by
making signs.”

Among the others who were targeted for killing were:
2. Abd al-Uzza b. Khatal or Abd Allah ibn. Khatal. His
offence was that he killed his slave when the slave
did not cook his food (Note: killing one’s slave was
not a serious crime during that time). Then Abd Allah
ibn. Khatal fled to Mecca and renounced Islam. He had
two singing girls who used to sing satires about
Muhammad. Muhammad ordered that they too are to be
killed along with Abd Allah ibn Khatal. When it was
discovered that Abdallah ibn Khatal was hiding inside
Ka’ba hanging the curtain of Ka’ba, two Jihadists,
Said b. Hurayth al-Makhzumi and Abu Barzah killed Abd
Allah by ripping open his

Belly. 3. One of the singing girls named Fartana was
also killed. 4. The other girl fled. 5. Another Meccan
killed was al-Huwayrith; Muhammad charged that he
maltreated his daughter Zaynab during her escape bid
from Mecca. On Muhammad’s order Ali b. Talib killed
him.

On the killing of the singing girl, Sunaan Abu Dawud
records:

Sunaan Abu Dawud: Book 14, Number 2678:

   Narrated Sa'id ibn Yarbu' al-Makhzumi:

   The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: on the
day of the conquest of Mecca: There are four
persons whom I shall not give protection in
the sacred and non-sacred territory. He then
named them. There were two singing girls of
al-Maqis; one of them was killed and the other
escaped and embraced Islam.

Muhammad also killed: 6. Miqyas b. Subabah who had
previously killed the killer of his brother and then
fled to Mecca and apostatised (see Terror 46, CH. 12).
Muhammad ordered his killing for his apostasy.
Numaylah b. Abd Allah killed him.

Also in the hit list were: 7. Ikrimah b. Abi Jahl and
8. Sarah. Sarah was the freed slave-girl of one of the
sons of Abd al Muttalib. Muhammad claimed that she
used to molest him while he was in Mecca. It is
reported that Muhammad eventually forgave Sarah.
Ikrimah b. Abi Jahl fled to Yemen. Later, Ikrimah’s
wife pleaded for Muhammad’s mercy on her husband.
Muhammad forgave Ikrimah on condition that he returned
to Mecca and submit to Islam. Ikramah’s wife set out
to find her husband when he was about to set sail for
Ethiopia. She brought him back to Muhammad and both
she and Ikrimah accepted Islam and saved their lives.

Besides those eight Meccans, Ibn Sa’d lists two more
people whom Muhammad earmarked for killing. They were:

9. Habbar b. al-Aswad-for tormenting Muhammad’s
daughter Zaynab during her escape bid from Mecca. He
concealed himself but was caught after a few months,
repented, converted to Islam and was forgiven.

10. Hind bt. Utbah, the wife of Abu Sufyan b. Harb.
She chewed the liver of slain Hamzah at Badr II. She
accepted Islam and Muhammad pardoned her.

Later, Umar killed Sarah by causing his horse to trample
her at al-Abtah. On the day of occupation of Mecca,
Muhammad commanded that six men and four women
be killed. The women were: 1. Hind bt. Utbah b.
Rabiah, 2. Sarah, the freed slave girl of Amr b.
Hashim b. Abd al-Muttalib; she was killed (waqidi) on
the day of invasion. 3. Quraybah; killed on the day of
invasion, 4. Fartana escaped death and lived until the
Caliphate of Uthman.

Those killings of the Meccan women smacks in the face
of Islam’s claim that the religion forbids the killing
of women in a war. In fact, we can cite Sahih
(authentic) Ahadith to demonstrate that the killings
of polytheist women and children and old men are
definitely sanctioned by Muhammad. Here are a few
samples:

Sahih Muslim: Book 019, Number 4321:

   It is reported on the authority of Sa'b b.
Jaththama that the Prophet of Allah (may peace
be upon him), when asked about the women and
children of the polytheists being killed
during the night raid, said: They are from
them.

Sunaan Abu Dawud: Book 14, Number 2664:

   Narrated Samurah ibn Jundub:

   The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: Kill the
old men who are polytheists, but spare their
children.

The fate of those condemned persons had already been
enumerated above.

All those killings done, Muhammad then descended into
a valley, at a spot close to the tombs of Abu Talib,
his uncle, and Khadija, his first wife. He pitched his
tent there. When his followers asked him if he would
like to visit his old home, he said, “No”. The great
banner was planted at the door of his tent. He was now
the lord of Mecca.

After a while, he mounted on al-Qaswa, his camel,
proceeded to Ka’ba and made seven circuits of the holy
sanctuary. Then he pointed his staff to the idols and
commanded that they be destroyed. The great idol of
Hubal in front of Ka’ba was demolished. Tradition says
that there were three hundred and sixty (360) idols in
Ka’ba. All those idols were then destroyed in front of
the bewildered Quraysh, who just a few moments ago
were their idols ardent worshippers. On the
destruction of the idols, and on the religious
tolerance preached by Muhammad, Allah promptly sent an
oracle (17:81) decreeing the banishment of falsehood
and the arrival of the truth.

Having conquered Mecca with extreme ease and without
much bloodshed, Muhammad halted at the door of Ka’ba
and exalted Allah and thanked Him for the victory.
With him were Usama b. Zayd, Uthman b. Talhah and
Bilal, as recorded in Sahih Bukhari:

Volume 1, Book 9, Number 483:

   Narrated Ibn 'Umar:

   The Prophet entered the Ka'ba along with Usama
bin Zaid, 'Uthman bin Talha and Bilal and
remained there for a long time. When they came
out, I was the first man to enter the Ka'ba. I
asked Bilal "Where did the Prophet pray?"
Bilal replied, "Between the two front
Pillars."

Allah also speedily sent down verse 49:13 proclaiming
that mankind was created as male and female and that
He had created many nations and tribes.

Then he went to the house of Abraham, twenty or thirty
steps from Ka’ba, and took the key of Ka’ba and gave
that to Uthman ibn Talha to keep Ka’ba’s custody for
posterity. Al-Abbas was appointed to serve drinks to
the pilgrims. Muhammad then obliterated the pictures
of Abraham and the angels that covered the walls of
Ka’ba. He broke, with his own hands, a dove made of
wood and threw that away. Allah hurriedly released the
verse on Abraham (3:67) justifying Muhammad’s
obliteration of idols and images. In this verse Allah
proclaimed that Abraham was neither a Jew nor a
Christian but a Hanif (a Muslim?) and Muhammad was the
nearest to Abraham.

Sahih Bukhari records Muhammad’s destruction of the
idols at Ka’ba in this Hadith

Volume 3, Book 43, Number 658:

   Narrated 'Abdullah bin Masud:

   The Prophet entered Mecca and (at that time)
there were three hundred-and-sixty idols
around the Ka'ba. He started stabbing the
idols with a stick he had in his hand and
reciting: "Truth (Islam) has come and
Falsehood (disbelief) has vanished."

Then Muhammad proclaimed that whoever believes in
Allah must not keep any image in his/her house and
should break all idols at home. He delivered a
passionate speech declaring his attachment to the
hallowed city. Muslim historians claim that this won
the hearts and minds of the Meccans. The residents of
Medina were now apprehensive that Muhammad might stay
in Mecca permanently. But Muhammad consoled them that
he would never quit Medina Then he returned to his
tent. Abu Bakr brought his aged and blind father Abu
Quahafa to Muhammad and he converted to Islam in front
of Muhammad.

The destruction and the removal of all the idols from
Ka’ba done, Muhammad ordered Bilal to mount its top
and offer Adhaan-the Muslims prayer call. Then the
Muslims gathered and offered prayer led by Muhammad.

Then Muhammad announced the general amnesty for the
Meccans. He sat at al-Safa and Umar b. Khattab
administered the oath of allegiance of the Meccans to
Islam. First, the men swore allegiance, then the
females. Among the females was Hind bt. Utbah, the
wife of Abu Sufyan b. Harb. She was fully veiled to
hide herself and she was apprehensive that Muhammad
would punish her. When she met Muhammad she implored
forgiveness from him. Muhammad forgave her and bound
her on the pledge that she should neither commit
adultery nor kill children.

Since Muhammad never shook hands with women except
with those whom he was permitted, the mode of
allegiance of women was that Muhammad dropped his hand
in water and then she did the same.

Safwan b. Umayyah, a Quraysh and an implacable enemy
of Muhammad, set out for Jeddah to leave for Yemen.
When he heard the news of victory of Muhammad he was
about to commit suicide by throwing himself at sea.
The people approached Muhammad and told him of this.
He pardoned Umayyah and gave Umayyah his turban as a
symbol of his pardon. Umayr went to Safwan, showed the
turban to Safwan and he was brought to Muhammad and
the latter gave him four months to decide whether he
should convert to Islam or die. In the end, Safwan
decided to become a Muslim. His wife, Fakhitah bt.
Al-Walid also became a Muslim.

Ibn Sa’d writes that Muhammad also visited the house
of Umm Hani (also known as Hind bt. Abu Talib), his
cousin and offered the victory prayer there. She
became a Muslim and her husband also joined her. Two
polytheist brothers-in-law of her who were against
Muhammad took shelter in her house. Ali wanted to kill
them. She pleaded with Muhammad for mercy on them. It
is reported that Muhammad granted amnesty to them
after they embraced Islam.

Wahsi, the Abyssinian slave who slew Hamza, fled to
Taif and eventually obtained a pardon.

Muhammad was quite forgiving and magnanimous after
conquering Mecca. He did this for his own interest. He
did what every astute politician would have done in
this situation, grant a general amnesty. His
forgiveness gave him wide support in Mecca. Within two
weeks, two thousand Meccans embraced Islam.

Muhammad then married Mulaykah bt Dawud al-Laythiyaah.
Previously, Muhammad had killed her father. This was
told to her by Muhammad’s wives. One of the Prophet’s
wives came to Mulaykah and said to her, “Are you nor
ashamed to marry a man who killed your father?” So, a
beautiful and young Mulaykah left Muhammad. It is
reported that Muhammad had killed her father on the
day of the conquest of Mecca.

Muslim historians often extol Muhammad’s great
‘compassion’ in offering a general amnesty to the
Meccans. They also praise the bloodless nature of this
occupation. Nonetheless, a little thought clearly
demonstrates that it was in the interest of Muhammad
that he should take up Mecca with the least possible
bloodshed. A general genocide and an unhindered
plunder would be of no advantage to him--Muhammad
knew this truth very well, and therefore, he cleverly
avoided unnecessary killing of his nearest kith and
kin. After all, Muhammad belonged to the tribe of
Quraysh. He had blood relations with many of them, and
he proved once again the old adage,’ blood is thicker
than water.’

We can also refute the dubious claim that this
occupation was relatively bloodless. We have already
seen how a few polytheists did put up some resistance,
however feeble it was, and that a number of them and a
few Muslims died. Besides these, we shall also witness
in the next few episodes the ‘true’ vengeance of
Muhammad, when he dispatched troops after troops to
annihilate any resemblance of religious tolerance in
and around Mecca, and to mop up ruthlessly any
possible future resistance against him.

Furthermore, less than two years after Muhammad
granted general amnesty to the citizens of Mecca, he
revoked this official pardon when he sent his agents,
Abu Bakr and Ali to announce to the polytheists of
Mecca that they face execution if they did not convert
to Islam (verse 9:5, known as the verse of the sword
nullified any amnesty/mercy granted to the polytheists
of Mecca).

Nevertheless, one must appreciate the cleverness, the
skillfulness, and the agility of Muhammad in occupying
the greatest citadel of Islam, Mecca. One indeed needs
the steadfastness, firmness, mercilessness, shrewdness
and cunningness and above all the adherence to
absolute fascism demonstrated by Muhammad to become
a celebrated terrorist/warlord.

Many Jihadists were unhappy that no exquisite Meccan
booty fell on them. They were grumbling and Muhammad
had to borrow large sums from the wealthiest Quraysh
to give fifty Dirhams (about US$ 250) each to two
thousand such ‘needy’ Jihadists.

Finally, on the day Muhammad invaded Mecca, he made it
compulsory for Muslims to wage Jihad (religious war)
on non-Muslims whenever they are called to do so.

Here are a few Ahadith on the compulsory nature of
Jihad :

Sahih Muslims: Book 020, Number 4597:

   It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn
'Abbas that the Messenger of Allah (may peace
be upon him) said on the day of the Conquest
of Mecca: There is no Hijra now, but (only)
Jihad (fighting for the cause of Islam) and
sincerity of purpose (have great reward) ;
when you are asked to set out (on an
expedition undertaken for the cause of Islam)
you should (readily) do so.

Sahih Bukhari: Volume 4, Book 52, Number 42:

   Narrated Ibn 'Abbas:

   Allah's Apostle said, "There is no Hijra (i.e.
migration) (from Mecca to Medina) after the
Conquest (of Mecca), but Jihad and good
intention remain; and if you are called (by
the Muslim ruler) for fighting, go forth
immediately.

Sahih Bukhari: Volume 4, Book 52, Number 311:

Narrated Ibn 'Abbas:

   The Prophet said, on the day of the Conquest
of Mecca, "There is no migration (after the
Conquest), but Jihad and good intentions, and
when you are called for Jihad, you should
immediately respond to the call."

Chapter Seventeen

‘Violence is the last refuge of the
incompetent’---Isaac Asimov (1920-1992)

Terror Seventy-three

The Destruction of al-Uzza at Nakhla by Khalid b.
al-Walid-January, 630CE

During the next two weeks after Muhammad’s occupation
of Mecca (see Terror 72, CH.16), Muhammads’ true
notion on religious freedom and tolerance was
revealed. Immediately after he seized control of
Meeca, he dispatched troops all around Mecca to
destroy the pagan idols and to force people to Islam.
The first such ‘religious cleansing,’ just five nights
before the end of Ramadan, was the destruction of
al-Uzza by the fearsome general Khalid b. al-Walid.
Al-Uzza was the biggest female idol (goddess) at
Nakhla, more recent than al-Lat and was worshipped and
venerated by B. Shayban, a sub-clan of B. Sulaym,
Quraysh, Kinanah and al-Mudar, inhabiting in and
around Mecca.

Ibn Kalbi contends that Muhammad had once given an
offering to al-Uzza. He writes:

‘We have been told that the Apostle of God once
mentioned al-Uzza saying, “I have offered a white
sheep to al-‘Uzza, while I was a follower of the
religion of my people.”’

Upon Muhammad’s order, Khalid raided the temple and
demolished the idol. He raided this temple twice. In
his first incursion, he cut down a tree in the temple,
broke the idol and killed its attendant and returned
to Medina. Not satisfied with this, Muhammad sent him
again. This time, Khalid went out with full fury,
ransacked the temple while the custodian of al-Uzza,
Dubayyah al-Sulami started to cry. Khalid killed him
and cut down another tree in the temple compound.
Then, while Khaild was rampaging through the shrine, a
wailing, naked Ethiopian woman rushed towards Khalid.
He beheaded her, took her Jewellery and brought it
back to Muhammad. Muhammad was extremely pleased and
claimed that that naked black woman was the real
al-Uzza.

Terror Sevent-four

The Destruction of Suwa at Ruhat by Amr b.
al-As-January, 630CE

Almost at the same time Muhammad sent Khalid to
destroy al-Uzza, he also sent Amr b. al-As to destroy
the stone idol of Suwa at Ruhat, a mere three kms from
Mecca. Suwa was a stone in the shape of a woman to
represent mutability and beauty and was worshipped by
the tribe of Hudhayl. Its custodian was a man from B.
Lihyan. Amr b. al-As broke the stone idol in pieces
and, forced its keeper under sword to accept Islam. To
his disappointment Amr did not find much valuable
treasure in this temple.

Terror Seventy-five

The Destruction of al-Manat at al-Kadid by Sa’d b.
Zayd al-Ashhali-January, 630CE

Then Sa’d b. Zayd went out to al-Kadid with twenty
horsemen and destroyed the female idol (goddess) of
Manat that the people of al-Aws al-Khazraj, and
Ghassan used to worship. Manat was the most ancient of
all idols around Mecca and its vicinity. When the
Muslims arrived at the temple, they found there a
black woman with unkempt hair. Sa’d struck her with
his sword and killed her. Then Sa’d ransacked the area
for valuables but found none. Some say that Manat was
destroyed by Ali. Ali found two swords under the
foundation of Manat and Muhammad gave those two swords
to Ali.

Terror Seventy-six

Plunder of B. Jadhimah at Tihamah by Khalid b.
al-Walid-January, 630CE

Pleased with Khalid’s service, Muhammad sent him with
a detachment of three hundred and fifty (350) men to
deal with the Banu Jodhimah who inhabited the low
lands of Tihamah. They were not really pagans or
polytheists, but Sabeans. The Sabeans claimed to be
the descendants of Seth, a son of Adam. They used to
worship the Sun, the Moon and the Stars, claiming
their faith to be the religion of Noah. Muhammad
instructed Khalid to call them to Islam without
fighting. However, when Khalid arrived at the site, he
brought up old issue of enmity and mistreated them. B.
Jadhima refused to surrender and took up arms against
Khalid.

Nonetheless, after pleading from several other senior
members of the tribe, they surrendered. Even then,
Khalid b. Walid killed some of them. Haykal writes
that those who surrendered but did not accept Islam
were to be killed. When Muhammad received the news of
the atrocity by Khalid, he was very displeased and
asked Allah to absolve him from the act of violence by
Khalid, the peccant. He said, “Slay the people as long
as you do not hear a Muadhdin (cryer for Islamic
prayers) or see a mosque.”

Here is Sahi Hadith from Sahih Bukhari on the level of
atrocity and cruelty perpetrated on B. Jadhimah by the
Muslims:

Volume 5, Book 59, Number 628:

   Narrated Salim's father:

   The Prophet sent Khalid bin Al-Walid to the
tribe of Jadhima and Khalid invited them to
Islam but they could not express themselves by
saying, "Aslamna (i.e. we have embraced
Islam)," but they started saying "Saba'na!
Saba'na (i.e. we have come out of one religion
to another)." Khalid kept on killing (some of)
them and taking (some of) them as captives and
gave every one of us his Captive. When there
came the day then Khalid ordered that each man
(i.e. Muslim soldier) should kill his captive,
I said, "By Allah, I will not kill my captive,
and none of my companions will kill his
captive." When we reached the Prophet, we
mentioned to him the whole story. On that, the
Prophet raised both his hands and said twice,
"O Allah! I am free from what Khalid has
done."

Then Muhammad asked Ali to go to B. Jadhimah to pay
the compensation for the killing by Khalid. Ali paid
the B. Jadhimah the blood money and the compensation
for the property that Khalid had destroyed.

As per Ibn Ishaq Muhammad had commanded Khalid to kill
the B. Jadhimah for their refusal to accept Islam.

Here is a pitiable tale of cruelty by the Muslim army
as narrated by a Jihadist when Khalid invaded B.
Jadhimah

According to Sa’id b Yahya al-Umawi…….…..Abdallah b.
Abi Hadrad, who said:

I was among Khalid’s horsemen that day. One of their
young men-he was among the prisoners, his hands were
tied to his neck with a rope, and some women were
gathered not far from him-said to me, “Young man!”
“Yes,” I said. He said: “Will you take hold of this
rope and lead me by it to these women, so that I can
entrust them with a needful matter of business? Then
you can bring me back to do as you all please with
me.” I said, “By God, what you have asked me is a
small thing.” I took hold of his rope and led him by
it until I had brought him to stand near them. He
said, Farewell, Hubayshah, as life runs out!”

After the condemned man met his sweetheart, he recited
a poem for her and the woman replied, “And you-may you
be made to live ten and seven years uninterrupted and
eight right after them!”

Then the Jihadist took him away and cut off his head.
The distraught woman ran to her beheaded lover, threw
herself down on him and she kept kissing him until she
died beside him.

Terror Seventy-seven

Second Raid on B. Hawazin or the Battle of Hunayn by
Muhammad-January, 630CE

B. Hawazin were a large group of north Arabian tribes
who were bitterly opposed to the Quraysh. This
hostility was due to the trade rivalry between Mecca
and Taif.

The place where this battle took place was a valley,
called Hunayn and was about three days march from
Mecca. This battle is mentioned in the Qur’an in verse
9:25-26

Muhammad stayed in Mecca for a fortnight after
conquering it; sending his troops around Mecca to
remove the last vestiges of polytheism and to force
the non-Quraysh people, living in the vicinity of
Mecca to Islam. He did this religious persecution with
ease, as most of the polytheists could not anticipate
such a sudden ferocious attack on them, and were
completely unprepared for this atrocity. The Hawazin
and the Thaqf tribes were particularly disturbed and
enraged by the destruction of pagan idols in Mecca and
within its vicinity. They decided not to let this
inhuman torment and barbarity of Muhammad’s army go
unchallenged

It is reported that when Malik b. Awf from B. Nasri (a
branch of Hawazin tribe), a tribal leader of thirty,
heard of the conquest of Mecca by Muhammad, he
gathered a force, consisting of B. Thaqif, B. Nasr and
B. Jusham and other minor tribes residing in the
locality. Excepting a few minor sub-clans from the
Hawazin, all other tribes inhabiting the area joined
in this battle to resist the aggression of Muhammad.
Towards the last few days during his stay, Muhammad
received information that the Hawazin and Thaqif
groups of tribes had marched out against Mecca and had
already assembled at Hunayn to confront him.

The Hawazin tribe, with twenty thousand men, under the
leadership of Malik b. Awf marched against Muhammad
with their women, children and cattle, meaning that
this was a fight to death. As soon as Muhammad
received the news of mobilisation of B. Hawazin and
Thaqif, he sent Abd Allah b. Abi Hadrad al-Aslami to
spy on them and collect information on their plan.
This Muslim spy infiltrated the Hawazin and Thaqif
people and brought the news that they had decided to
fight Muhammad. It is reported by Tabari that when the
Muslim spy, Abd Allah b. Abi Hadrad brought the
information of the B. Hawazin, Umar b. Khattab did not
believe him and called the Muslim spy a liar. On this
accusation, the Muslim spy revealed the secret that
Umar had, on some occasions, called Muhammad a liar
too. This is what Abd Allah said, “O, Umar, if you
accuse me of lying, then many a time you have denied
the truth. You have accused the one who is better than
me [i.e, the Prophet] of lying.”

Tabari further reports that the Hawazin and the other
Meccan tribes considered Muhammad an apostate of his
time because he parted from the religion of the
Quraysh.

Malik had vowed that either he will win against the
apostate (i.e., Muhammad) or he would commit suicide.
Malik’s people readily agreed with him, i.e., to win
or to die.

Having secured the unqualified support from his
people, Malik gave order to his people that when they
saw their enemy they would attack them as one body,
thus maintaining the solid unity among his people.

Then the spies of Malik went out to gather information
on the movement of Muhammad’s army. An apocryphal
account says that they saw the white men (angels?) on
black and white horses they were blinded and returned
quickly.

After Muhammad heard from the Muslim spy the news of
B. Hawazin and their confederates, he decided to march
to face his new enemy. Since, he, at that time had
very little money, he approached Safwan b. Umayyah
(Safwan was under suspended death sentence by
Muhammad-see Terror 72, CH.16), an arms manufacturer,
who was still a polytheist, to lend the Muslims the
weapons necessary for the war. Safwan readily accepted
Muhammad’s arms deal and supplied (on loan) and
transported all the weapons the Muslims required for
their battle.

Having procured the arms from an infidel, Muhammad now
marched with ten thousand (10,000) of his Medinaan
followers along with two thousand (2,000) of his new
converts of Mecca, i.e., altogether twelve thousand
(12,000) Muslim Jihadists against B. Hawazin and
B.Thaqif. This was the second raid on B. Hawazin by
the Muslims (for the first raid, see Terror 54,
CH.14). He kept Attab b. Asid, a recent convert to
Islam in charge of Mecca to look after the men left in
Mecca. Foremost in the minds of these Muslim fighters
was the exquisite booty that they could have from the
B. Hawazin and their confederates. Here is a Hadith from
Sunaan Abu Dawud about how Muhammad motivated his
fighters with booty. This is a lengthy Hadith; I have
quoted only the relevant part):

Book 14, Number 2495:

Narrated Sahl ibn al-Hanzaliyyah:

   On the day of Hunayn we travelled with the
Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) and we
journeyed for a long time until the evening
came. I attended the prayer along with the
Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him).

   A horseman came and said: Apostle of Allah, I
went before you and climbed a certain mountain
where saw Hawazin all together with their
women, cattle, and sheep, having gathered at
Hunayn.

   The Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him)
smiled and said: That will be the booty of the
Muslims tomorrow if Allah wills. He then
asked: Who will be on guard tonight? …………..

Muhammad arrived at Hunayn in the evening or at night
and encamped there. Ibn Ishak writes that while at a
halt on their journey the Muslims asked Muhammad to
make a tree for them to hang their swords, per the
Meccan tradition whereby they would hang their swords
and sacrifice their animals in such a tree. He
compared this request by his followers to that of the
request to Moses to make a heifer for worship during
Moses’ exodus across the Red sea. Allah revealed verse
7:138 in this connection. In the very early morning,
before sunrise, (Muhammad’s usual time to conduct
terror raids) he rode Duldul (his white mule) towards
the rear of the forces. In front was B. Sulaym, led by
Khalid b Walid.

When the Muslims approached the valley of Hunayn and
were passing through its canyon, the Hawazins, in the
darkness of the dawn, suddenly attacked them like one
man. The Muslims were extremely frightened and took to
flight. It was each for himself as they fled. No
Jihadist cared for another Jihadist. The defeat was so
severe that no one even listened to Muhammad when he
cried out to the fleeing Jihadists to return to fight.
He said, “Where are you, O men? Come to me! I am the
Messenger of God! I am Muhammad the son of Abd Allah!”
But all his desperate calls fell into deaf ears.

Except for a few core group of Jihadists, all the
Muslim fighters ran away from the battlefield. Those
who remained with Muhammad were some Muhajirs, a few
Ansars and the nearest of his family members like: Abu
Bakr, Umar, Ali, al-Abbas and his son al-Fadl, Abu
Sufyan b.al-Harith and Usamah b. Zayd b. Haritha.

When the stampede of the Muslims became quite
uncontrollable, Abu Sufyan b. Harb remarked, “Their
stampede will not stop until they reach the ocean!”
Abu Sufyan was about to use some kind of sorcery but
his half-brother Safwan b. Umayyah b.Khalaf said that
sorcery was useless on that day. Safwan was still a
polytheist at that time of grace period Muhammad gave
him (see Terror 72, CH.16) to convert to Islam. But
Abu Sufyan b. Harb was very panicky as he preferred to
be ruled by a man from the Quraysh than by the
Hawazin. A rumour also spread that Muhammad had been
killed, creating more panic and terror among the
Muslims.

However, soon the message went out that the attempt to
kill Muhammad during this panicky stage of the battle
was thwarted by divine intervention-it is claimed.

During this time, Muhammad met a pregnant woman, Umm
Sulaym bt Milhan the wife of Abu Talhah. She advised
Muhammad to kill those Jihdists who flee the
battlefield just in the same manner as Muhammad kills
his enemy combatants. But Muhammad was not very
enthusiastic over this and said that Allah was enough
for him. On that day she and her husband had come
fully armed to kill as many polytheists as they could
and to take their booty. Her husband, Abu Talhah, took
the spoils of twenty men he had killed himself.

When Muhammad found that his call for Jihad was in
vain, he summoned his uncle al-Abbas (who had a very
thunderous voice), to cry out very loudly for the
Muslims to return and resume fighting. Al-Abbas did
the same, and, at last, one-hundred Muslims gathered
around Muhammad. They started to fight the enemy with
new vigour and Muhammad watched the fighting standing
on his stirrup.

While this was going on, Ali b. Abi Talib attacked
from behind a leading man from Hawazin, who was
fighting fiercely with his lance. Ali hamstrung this
man’s camel. The Muslims jumped over him and cut off
his foot and half of his shank. This brave Hawazin man
still kept on fighting and finally died.

When the battle became very intense, Muhammad got down
from his mule, Duldul, picked up some pebbles from the
ground, threw them towards the enemy (remember Badr
II?) and started reciting verses from Sura Ha-Mim
(Sura 41); the enemy started retreating-so it is
claimed. Then a black striped garment descended from
the sky; it was a mass of black ants! Those were the
angels descended from heaven to help the Muslims,
Muhammad exhorted. The truth is that the colony of
black ants was a probably a dark cloud in the sky, as
Ibn Sa’d writes that it rained on the day of Hunayn.
With the help of those angels disguised as black ants,
the Muslims finally defeated the B. Hawazin-Muslim
historians assert. Some even claim that the angels
wore red turbans on the day of Hunayn!

After the defeat of the B. Hawazin, there was
widespread killing of them; seventy of them were
slaughtered where their banner fell. Ibn Ishak writes
that the fierce general, Khalid b. Walid, killed some
women and children of the polytheists. Muhammad
reprimanded Khalid for resorting to such act.

Malik tried his best but could not rescue the women
and children. So he ran away. The women and children
fell in the hands of Muhammad, including their
property, camp and flock. Six thousand prisoners were
taken. Ibn Ishak writes that a handcuffed man was
beheaded for offending the Muslims. The Jihadist
soldiers then engaged in stripping of the armours,
coats of mail, and personal valuables from the corpses
of enemy soldiers that they had killed with their own
hands. One Jihadist bought his first real estate from
the proceeds of such booty. Here is a Hadith from
Malik’s Muwatta to confirm this:

Book 21, Number 21.10.19:

   Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab
that al-Qasim ibn Muhammad said that he had
heard a man asking ibn Abbas about booty. Ibn
Abbas said, "Horses are part of the booty and
personal effects are as well."

   Then the man repeated his question, and Ibn
Abbas repeated his answer. Then the man said,
"What are the spoils which He, the Blessed,
the Exalted, mentioned in His Book?" He kept
on asking until Ibn Abbas was on the verge of
being annoyed, then Ibn Abbas said, "Do you
know who this man is like? Ibn Sabigh, who was
beaten by Umar ibn al-Khattab because he was
notorious for asking foolish questions."

   Yahya said that Malik was asked whether
someone who killed one of the enemy could keep
the man's effects without the permission of
the Imam. He said, "No one can do that without
the permission of the Imam. Only the Imam can
make ijtihad. I have not heard that the
Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and
grant him peace, ever said, 'Whoever kills
someone can have his effects,' on any other
day than the day of Hunayn."

The loss on the Muslim side was minimal; some say the
loss was quite heavy-two tribes were completely
annihilated for whom Muhammad offered special prayer.

Muhammad lost his maid servant, Umm Ayman in this
battle.

The remaining polytheists, along with their leader
Malik, fled to Taif. Some went to Nakhla, still some
went to Awtas. The Awtas group then took shelter in
their camp. Later, they were eventually defeated in a
severe fight.

Muhammad’s army followed those who fled to Nakhla but
returned after a short chase. While pursuing them, the
Muslim soldiers caught Durayd b. Simmah, the old man
who did not fight at all in the battle. He was riding
a camel litter hiding there as a woman. When Durayd
asked the young Jihadist, Rabiah b. Rufay, what he
intended to do with an old man like him, Rabiah said
that he wanted to kill him. When Rabiah struck his
sword on Durayd it did not kill him. Durayd laughed at
the poor mastery of weapon by the young Jihadist. He
gave his own sword to Rabiah and instructed him how to
perform a slaughter. Then Durayd told Rabiah that
after killing him he should go back to his mother
(Rabiah) and inform her about the slaying; for he
(Durayd) had previously saved many of their women.

After slaying Durayd, Rabiah returned to his mother
and told her about what he had done. His mother said,
“By God, he set free three mothers of yours.”

That was how Muhammad’s fanatic Jihadists treated
enemy’s old men men during war. In fact, we read in an
authentic Hadith that in a Jihad, it is permissible to
kill old infidel men, sparing their children. Read the
following Hadith:

Sunaan Abu Dawud: Book 14, Number 2664:

   Narrated Samurah ibn Jundub:

   The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: Kill the
old men who are polytheists, but spare their
children.

[Note: Sharia law (Islamic law) permits unrestrained
killing of old infidel men in a Jihad. I have quoted
the relevant Sharia rule on this in a previous episode
(see rule o9.10, p.603, Reliance of the Traveller)]

However, in another Sahi Hadith we learn that during a
night raid, Muhammad permitted the killing of the
children of infidel. Here is a Hadith from Sahih
Muslim on this matter:

Book 019, Number 4322:

   It is narrated by Sa'b b. Jaththama that he
said (to the Holy Prophet): Messenger of
Allah, we kill the children of the polytheists
during the night raids. He said: They are from
them.

As told before, having suffered the defeat at Hunayn,
Malik b. Awf fled with many of his compatriots. One B.
Hawazin men, Bijad was one of them. Muhammad’s intense
irk fell on him as he claimed that Bijad had
previously dismembered a Muslim’s body and then burnt
it. Muhammad gave directive that anyone who caught
Bijad should not let him escape.

The Muslims hunted down Bijad along with his sister,
Shayma bt. al-Harith, while they were trying to flee.
The Muslims caught them, bound them like cattle,
manhandled them in their captivity, and then brought
them to Muhammad. It turned out that Shayma bt.
al-Harith was the foster sister of Muhammad (i.e.,
Shyama was the daughter of Halima, Muhmmad’s milk
mother) but the Muslims did not believe her claim.

When she was brought to Muhammad, he wanted proof that
she was indeed his foster sister. So Shayma showed
Muhammad the bite on her back that Muhammad did when
she carried him on her hip. This convinced Muhammad
and he offered her the choice between living with him
or to return to her people. She preferred the latter
choice. Muhammad gave her a slave-man called Mukhul
and a slave-girl. After she left Muhammad, she had
these two slaves marry. Another version of this story
says that Shayma embraced Islam and Muhammad gave her
three slaves. It is not known what happened to Bijad.

The victory at Hunayn brought more captives and booty
than the Muslims had ever seen before. The spoil was
huge: twenty-two thousand (22,000) camels, forty
thousand (40,000) goats and four thousand (4,000)
ounces of silver. The Muslims seized all of them. This
booty (worth around US$ 9 million), along with six
thousand (6,000) captives (worth around US$ 12
million), mainly women and children were transported
under Muslim protection to the valley of Jirana and
stored in a warehouse there. The Muslims were
overwhelmed with greed; they celebrated their victory
and waited for the distribution of the booty. However,
Muhammad commanded his men to march to the city of
Taif to capture Malik. The booty had to wait till the
mission to capture Malik was accomplished-Muhammad
ordered.

The Thaqif who escaped from the battle of Hunayn
returned to Taif and shut themselves up inside their
formidable fortresses. They were well versed in modern
warfare and took preparation for a long-drawn war. To
meet them, Muhammad sent Urwah b. Masud and Ghaylan b.
Salamah to Jurash to learn the techniques of warfare
with the use of catapult and Testudo-a sort of
primitive tank made from wood. These two Muslims were
not present either at Hunayn or at Taif because of
their duty to acquire modern warfare techniques.

Chapter Eighteen

‘A thing is not necessarily true because a man dies
for it’--- Oscar Wilde (1854-1900)

Terror Seventy-eight

The Destruction of the idol Yaghuth at Dhu al-Kaffyan
by Tufayl ibn ‘Amr al-Dawsi-January, 630

When Muhammad sent Urwah b. Masud and Ghaylan b.
Salamah (see Terror 77, CH. 17) to Jurash to learn the
techniques of warfare with the use of catapult and
Testudo, he also despatched al-Tufayl ibn ‘Amr
al-Dawsi to destroy the idol of Yaghuth at Dhu
al-Kaffyan. This idol was in the shape of a lion (or
bull), signifying brute strength belonged to the
people of Amr ibn Humamamh al-Dawasi (Tufayl’s own
people). Muhammad instructed Tufayl to gather his
(Tufayl’s) people in this demolition and, having
finished this carnage, Tufayl was to join him
(Muhamad) at Taif. With the assistance of four hundred
(400) of his people, Tufayl destroyed the said idol by
igniting its face and setting it on fire. Then Tufayl,
along with the four hundred rioters marched ahead to
join Muhammad at Taif. They also brought with them the
catapult and the Testudo (delivered to Tufayl by Urwah
at Taif).

Terror Seventy-nine

The Siege of Taif by Muhammad-January, 630CE

As written previously (Terror 77, CH. 17), the
fugitives from Thaqif and B. Hawazin, and from other
tribes, after fleeing the battle of Hunayn exiled in
Taif. The city of Taif was famous for its luscious
vineyard and was surrounded by many strong fortresses.
Ali Dashti writes that Taif was a tourist resort for
the Meccans and the B. Thaqif did not want to
antagonise the Meccans by supporting Muhammad (Dashti,
p.77). These fugitives took shelter in those fortified
fortresses, shut their doors and made preparations for
a war. The city was capable to withstand a siege for
many months, as there was plentiful supply of water.
The fugitives stocked up their sanctuary with enough
provision to last them a year or so. Amongst the
fugitive leaders was Malik from B. Hawazin, and Adiy,
the son of famous philanthropist, Hatim of B.Tayii.

In the mean time, after the victory at Hunayn,
Muhammad proceeded straight to Taif and on arriving
there discovered that the Thaqif and the run-away B.
Hawazin had already sheltered themselves inside those
formidable fortresses. So Muhammad laid siege on them
that lasted for fifteen (or twenty) days. While moving
towards Taif, he left behind a trail of terror, blood
and destruction. At first, he halted at Bahrat
al-Rugha and built a mosque there and prayed there.
Here, Muhammad ordered the killing of a Hudhayl man
who had previously killed a B. Layth (Muslim) man.
Then he introduced the regulation of a life for a
life, or the rule on retaliation for homicide. In
verse 2:178, Allah approved Muhammad’s nature of
justice.

Then he halted at Liyyah and ordered the destruction
of the castle of Hawazin leader, Malik. As written
before, Malik had already fled to Taif and put himself
up in one of the fortresses of Thaqif. From Liyyah
Muhammad went to Nakhb. On his way, he changed the
name of some places, simply because he did not like
their existing names. While at Nakhb, Muhammad ordered
the destruction of the walled garden of a man because
the man had refused to come out of his residence when
he ordered him to do so.

Proceeding further, Muhammad halted at Taif and
pitched his tent near to the main fortress where the
Thaqif people had taken shelter. The people inhabiting
the vicinity of the fort had to surrender to him. The
Thaqif showered Muhammad’s troop with arrows and
killed a few of his companions. So Muhammad moved
further away and put up his tent on a higher ground;
built a mosque there and sheltered his two wives, Umm
Salamah and Zaynab bt. Jahsh in two red tents. He
continued with the siege on the Taif fortresses,
prayed in the newly constructed mosque and stayed in
the two tents of his two wives.

During this time, Tufayl ibn Amr al-Dawsi, along with
four hundred (400) men joined Muhammad. Previously
they were at Dhu al-Kaffayn destroying an idol (see
Terror 78, CH. 17).They also brought the catapult and
the Testudo at Taif. The Thaqif continued with their
strike on the Muslims, mainly with arrows and flames
from behind their fort, never coming out of it. The
Muslims could not get through the wall of the fort.

Then Muhammad decided to fight bitterly the Thaqif by
using his new war machines, the catapult and Testudo.
The Taif citizens were fully prepared for this type of
attack. The newly arrived army used the catapult and
attacked the wall of a fortress, creating a hole
there. Then some Muslim soldiers were ported through
this hole inside the new Testudo. When the Muslim
soldiers came out of their Testudo, the Thaqif poured
molten iron on them and showered them with arrows,
killing some of them and wounding many. It is reported
that Abu Bakr’s son, Abd Allah, was gravely injured in
this fight. He never recovered from his wound and
eventually succumbed to his injury. The Muslims fled
in alarm. Muhammad blocked the road that stopped the
supply of food to the Thaqif. But the Thaqif were not
alarmed. They had enough provisions to last for a very
long siege. Then Muhammad ordered the famed vines of
the Thaqif be cut and burned. He had already resorted
to this type of slash and burn approach during the
siege of B. Nadir, and recalled its supreme
effectiveness. His new order was carried out with
merciless vigour. The Thaqif people were terrified and
they began communicating with Muhammad. On the pledge
of safety by the Thaqif, Muhammad then sent Abu Sufyan
b. Harb and al-Mughira b. Shuba to negotiate a deal
with the besieged Thaqif. Abu Sufyan’s daughter, Amina
was married to the Thaqif man, Urwa b. Masud and had a
son by him. Besides them, there were also a number of
Quraysh and B. Kinanah women in the fort. Abu Sufyan
wanted to evacuate these women and their children for,
he was afraid that these women would become captives
of the Muslim army. The Thaqif leader asked Muhammad
to stop cutting down their valuable orchards; in
exchange for that, Muhammad was free to take
possession of them (i.e., the Quraysh and B. Kinanah
women and children residing in their fortresses).
Muhammad stopped the destruction of the orchards. Abu
Sufyan asked the Quraysh women to leave the fort, but
they refused to come out, preferring to remain with
the Thaqif people. So Abu Sufyan’s peace mission
returned without any success. The siege by Muhammad
continued. Soon, Muhammad enticed the Thaqif slaves
with freedom if they deserted their Thaqif masters and
embraced Islam. Most slaves did not respond to
Muhammad’s call; only a handful (numbering between 13
to 23) of them came out and embraced Islam. Muhammad
set them free

During this time, a Muslim woman approached Muhammad
and requested of him that if Allah granted victory to
the Muslims he should give her the jewellery of two
Thaqif women, for those two women had the most
expensive jewellery among the Thaqif women. Such was
the cupidity of Muslims engaged in Jihad!

After a siege of fifteen days or so, Muhammad grew
impatient. His followers were eagerly waiting for the
distribution of booty from the plunder of B. Hawazin
that they had stored at Jirana. They started pestering
a demurred Muhammad. He did not know what to do.

Then, suddenly, he had a bizarre dream and Abu Bakr
interpreted that dream as a negative result from this
lengthy siege. Muhammad agreed with Abu Bakr’s
interpretation of his dream, ordered to break up the
Muslim camp and proceed towards Jirana. The truth was:
an expert on warfare advised Muhammad that the
beleaguered Thaqif could easily be confronted at a
later date as they were like foxes in their holes. A
shrewd Muhammad understood the implication of such
wise advice and decided to end the siege, vowing to
chastise the Thaqif after he had settled the booty
issue. Some of his minions were grumbling that they
might miss out the rich booty and pretty women of the
Thaqif. Muhammad consoled them to have patience for a
later victory. He was not in a hurry.

Twelve Muslims died in the siege of Taif, seven from
the Quraysh, four from the Ansars and one from B.
Layth.

From the account of this siege we learn quite a bit
about the major motives of the Jihadists to join
Muhammad. One such motive, obviously, was the greed
for booty as was illustrated in the example of a
Muslim woman cited above; another motive was women.

Here is an interesting anecdote:

Jihadist’s only desire was women!

When the besieged Thaqif people saw the departure of
Muhammad’s Jihadists, they cried out in joy. Having
heard their victory signal, the newly converted
Muslim, Uyaynah b. Hisn expressed his solidarity with
the Thaqif people by admitting that the Thaqif, indeed
had the victory. Another Muslim soldier admonished
him; but Uyaynah answered this Muslim Jihadist by
claiming that he only came to this battle to enjoy
Thaqif women. He said, “By God, I did not come to
fight Thaqif with you, but I wished Muhammad to be
victorious over al-Taif, so that I might obtain a
slave-girl from Thaqif whom I might make pregnant so
that she might bear me a son, for Thaqif are clever
people.” When Umar told Muhammad what Uyaynah had
said, Muhammad said, “[This man exhibits] an
acceptable foolishness.”

In the next few passages we shall witness the
insatiable greed of the Jihadits for booty.

The division of spoils of B. Hawazin

After aborting the siege of Taif, Muhammad trudged
straight to Jirana where all the booty of Hunayn
battle was gathered (see Terror 77, CH. 17). This was
one of the largest booty that the Jihadists ever had.
As noted previously, the spoil consisted of six
thousand (6,000) captives of women and children,
twenty-four thousand (24,000) camels, forty thousand
(40,000) sheep and four thousand (4,000) ounces of
silver. The Muslims were extremely impatient to take
hold of their respective share of the loot, and
Muhammad had to abandon Taif so-soon to please them.

When Muhammad arrived at Jirana, the deputation of
Hawazin came to meet him about the release of their
women and children. First, they had to embrace Islam
before they could even start a negotiation with
Muhammad. One of them, B. Sa’d b. Bakr appealed on the
ground of blood relations. They could have either
their women and children or the goods, not
both-Muhammad stipulated. The B. Hawazin wanted their
family back, instead of their cattle and other
properties. It is reported that B. Sa’d b. Bakr
belonged to the clan who had nursed (by Halima)
Muhammad when he was an infant. He pointed out that
some of the captives were Muhammad’s kin by suckling.
During this distribution of captives, Muhammad met
with his milk sister, Shyama, whose story had already
been told before (see Terror 77, CH. 17).

This passionate plea, on the ground of kinship melted
slightly Muhammad’s heart. He contended that he would
release his share (i.e., one-fifth, or one thousand
and two women and children) of the captives and would
also request other Muslims to release their captives
too. It was a voluntary offer; some Muslims readily
agreed on this but many refused. When Muhammad found
out that there was a sense of deprivation on this
voluntary surrender of their prized possessions, he
set an exchange rate that whoever freed a captive
would receive six camels. In this way, most of the
women and children captives were finally released.
Here is a Hadith from Sahih Bukhari on the release of
the captives of B. Hawazin:

Volume 3, Book 46, Number 716:

Narrated Marwan and Al-Miswar bin Makhrama:

   When the delegates of the tribe of Hawazin
came to the Prophet and they requested him to
return their properties and captives. The
Prophet stood up and said to them, "I have
other people with me in this matter (as you
see) and the most beloved statement to me is
the true one; you may choose either the
properties or the prisoners as I have delayed
their distribution." The Prophet had waited
for them for more than ten days since his
arrival from Ta'if. So, when it became evident
to them that the Prophet was not going to
return them except one of the two, they said,
"We choose our prisoners." The Prophet got up
amongst the people and glorified and praised
Allah as He deserved and said, "Then after,
these brethren of yours have come to us with
repentance, and I see it logical to return
them the captives. So, whoever amongst you
likes to do that as a favor, then he can do
it, and whoever of you likes to stick to his
share till we recompense him from the very
first war booty which Allah will give us, then
he can do so (i.e. give up the present
captives)." The people unanimously said, "We
do that (return the captives) willingly." The
Prophet said, "We do not know which of you has
agreed to it and which have not, so go back
and let your leaders forward us your
decision." So, all the people then went back
and discussed the matter with their leaders
who returned and informed the Prophet that all
the people had willingly given their consent
to return the captives. This is what has
reached us about the captives of Hawazin.
Narrated Anas that 'Abbas said to the Prophet,
"I paid for my ransom and Aqil's ransom."

From his share of captive women, Muhammad gave his
son-in-law Ali a slave-girl, Raytah bt.Hilal to enjoy
her at his will. He also presented, Uthman b. Affan,
another of his sons-in-law, another slave-girl, Zaynab
bt. Hayyan; bestowed Umar b. Khattab with a freed
girl. Umar gave that girl to his son Abd Allah. Abd
Allah sent this girl to his maternal aunt to get her
ready so that he could enjoy her after he had
circumambulated the Ka’ba! Most of Muhammad’s other
elite companions received slave-girls. It is reported
that Abd Allah released her sex-slave when he heard
that Muhammad had advised the Muslims to release their
captives.

Uayanah b. Hisn received an old widow as a captive,
hoping to raise good ransom for her. When he heard
Muhammad’s call to release the captive women, he was
very disappointed and refused to release her in
exchange for six camels. One of his comrades then told
him ‘to let her go for her mouth was neither cold nor
were her breasts swelling, she could not conceive, her
milk was not rich and her husband would not care.’
Being saddened with such an ‘expired’ woman, Uayanan
b. Hisn released her in exchange for six camels.

Then Uayanah met his friend al-Aqra and complained to
him about his chagrin over Muhammad’s call. His friend
replied, “By God, you did not take her as virgin in
her prime nor even full-figured in her middle age!”

Muhammad then offered Malik, the leader of the
Hawazin, who was hiding at Taif to come out of his
recluse and pledged that if he embraced Islam then he
(Muhammad) would return his family and possessions.
When this news of conditional amnesty reached Malik,
he decided to leave Taif stealthily; he came to Jirana
where Muhammad was stationed, embraced Islam and
reclaimed his family. After embracing Islam, he aided
Muhammad in fighting the Thaqif people.

Apparently, the Muslims were not quite happy with
Muhammad’s generous gesture towards his erstwhile
foes. They were apprehensive that if this ‘kindness’
by Muhammad continued unabated they might miss out in
their fair share of the prisoners and the booty. They
felt a sense of deprivation from the huge booty that
they had collected after a vigorous fight. So, while
Muhammad was riding away after releasing the captives
of Hunayn, the Muslims ran after him saying, “O
Messenger of God, divide our booty of camels and small
cattle among us.” They were so persistent and forceful
that they pushed Muhammad’s back against a tree and
took out his mantle. The Jihadists were simply enraged
that the booty might elude them. A desperate Muhammad
cried out, “ Give me back my mantle, men, for by God
if you had as many sheep as the trees of Tihama, I
would distribute them among you; you have not found me
niggardly or cowardly or false.” To appease this
unruly bunch of booty-hungry Jihadists, he even
promised them to return his personal one-fifth share
(khums) of the booty. Only then did the Jihadists
release a grossly distressed Muhammad.

Muhammad gave special gifts as a bribe to those newly
converted Muslims whose hearts were to be won and who
were eminent among the Quraysh. To support his action
he claimed that the Quraysh were not strong in Islam,
so he had to bribe them to buy their heart. Here is a
Hadith from Sahih Bukhari on this action of bribery of
Muhammad:

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 374:

Narrated Anas:

   The Prophet said, "I give to Quraish people in
order to let them adhere to Islam, for they
are near to their life of Ignorance (i.e. they
have newly embraced Islam and it is still not
strong in their hearts."

Allah quickly approved this form of bribery in verse
9:60. Even some Quraysh who were still pagan received
something.

He gave one hundred (100) camels to those elite
converts like, Abu Sufyan b. Harb, his two sons
Muawiyah and Yazid, Safwan b. Uumayyah, Suhayl b. Amr,
Uyayanah b. Hisn etc. When Abu Sufyan grumbled and
asked for more he gave him and each of his sons forty
(40) ounces of gold (in today’s money it is around US$
16,000). Safwan b. Umayyah wanted more, so Muhammad
gave him another two hundred (200) camels, i.e., all
together, he received three hundred (300) camels. They
became to be known as “Men of Hundreds.” Not only that
Muhammad ‘bribed’ those new converts with money and
goods, but he also elevated some of them to important
positions. Thus Abu Sufyan’s son Yazid was made the
governor of Tayma and his other son Muawiya was
appointed the secretary of Muhammad. Those new
converts below in rank of the elite received less than
one hundred camels, some of them received only fifty
camels. Some new Muslims were not pleased with this
type of ‘bribery discrimination’ and they reproached
Muhammad.

To placate the ‘tongues’ of these new converts,
Muhammad gave them more camels until they were
satisfied and stopped criticising him.

When a devoted Jihadist, Juayl b. Suraqah complained
about Muhammad’s unfairness in the distribution of B.
Hawazin booty, Muhammad replied, “By Him in whose hand
is my soul, Juayl b. Suraqah is better than an entire
world full of men like Uyayanah b. Hisn and al-Aqra b.
Habis, but I have treated them generously so that they
may embrace Islam, and I have entrusted Ju’ayl b.
Suraqah to his Islam.”

All the booty of Hunayn were distributed among the
Quraysh and the Bedouin tribes. The Ansars received
nothing. They were very unhappy and this mood of their
discontent reached Muhammad. The Ansars were
apprehensive that Muhammad was now with his own people
(Quraysh). Muhammad gathered the Ansars and told them
that the others had booty but they had him as their
own; that was better than booty. Then Muhammad shed
tears for them and promised that he was one of the
Ansars and. The Ansars expressed their satisfaction
with Muhammad’s explanation for ‘booty
discrimination.’ See Sahih Muslim, book 4, Hadith
number 2303 for further details.

After this meeting with the Ansars, Muhammad left
Jirana and went to perform an Umra, and ordered that
that the rest of the spoils be kept back in Majanna,
another safe location. After returning from Umra, he
left for Medina, leaving Muadh b. Jabal at Mecca in
charge of teaching Islam to the new Muslims and Attab
b. Asid, a new convert, as the Governor of Mecca with
an allowance of one Dirham a day. The rest of the loot
followed him to Medina. Muhammad arrived in Medina in
April, 630.

From the Jirana booty, every Jihadist got four camels
and forty sheep. Every horseman got an additional
share for his horse. A horseman received twelve (12)
camels and one hundred and twenty (120) sheep. Convert
these animals to equivalent US$ and you will surely
comprehend why Jihad was such a great attraction to
all those clodhoppers of Muhammad.

After Muhammad returned to Medina he appointed several
tax collectors to collect Jizya taxes, by force, if
necessary from those tribes who refused to accept
Islam.

Terror Eighty

The Raid on B. Tamim by Uyana b. Hisn-July, 630CE

When the forced Jizya on the infidels became extremely
oppressive, many tribes rebelled against Muhammad. B.
Tamim, refused to pay Jizya and enticed other tribes
to follow suit when the Muslim tax collector
approached them. So Muhammad sent Uyana b. Hisn, at
the behest of fifty horsemen to punish B. Tamim and to
exact the Jizya from them. Uyana attacked B. Tamim
while they were grazing their cattle in the desert.
Most of B. Tamim fled in terror. Uyana took the booty
of camels and flocks, captured eleven men, twenty-one
women, and thirty children and brought the booty to
Medina. Muhammad incarcerated the captured men, women
and children. Soon, after learning about their
incarceration, B.Tamim sent a ten man delegation to
Muhammad to negotiate their release. These Bedouins
came to Medina and called out curtly for Muhammad
while the latter was resting in his apartment. Allah
was displeased with this roughness towards His
messenger and quickly sent down verses 49:4
admonishing this unruly bunch of Arab Bedouins and
forbade raising of voice volume above that of
messenger of Allah. An annoyed Muhammad talked briefly
with them and then he went to perform his prayer.
Allah also released verse 49:6 warning Muhammad to
verify facts before acting on it. Then Muhammad
entered into a prolong negotiation with the B. Tamim
delegation. A poetry competition was held to judge
whose religion was better---Islam or paganism. Of
course, Islam won the competition; the B. Tamim
converted to Islam and Muhammad released their men,
women and children. When they converted to Islam,
Muhammad praised them and Bibi Aisha released a slave
that belonged to B. Tamim. Here is a Hadith on B.
Tamim from Sahih Bukhari:

Volume 3, Book 46, Number 719:

   Narrated Abu Huraira:

   I have loved the people of the tribe of Bani
Tamim ever since I heard, three things,
Allah's Apostle said about them. I heard him
saying, These people (of the tribe of Bani
Tamim) would stand firm against Ad-Dajjal."
When the Sadaqat (gifts of charity) from that
tribe came, Allah's Apostle said, "These are
the Sadaqat (i.e. charitable gifts) of our
folk." 'Aisha had a slave-girl from that
tribe, and the Prophet said to 'Aisha,
"Manumit her as she is a descendant of Ishmael
(the Prophet)."

Terror Eighty-one

Terrorising B. al-Mustaliq for Jizya-July, 630CE

As per the Islamic rule on subjugated people, a tax
collector went to collect Jizya tax from the B.
al-Mustaliq people. This tribe surrounded the tax
collector. Apprehending violence, the tax collectors
fled to Medina. Muhammad threatened them with terror
and revenge. The frightened B. Mustaliq then received
the tax collector with courtesy and paid the Jizya due
on them.

Terror Eighty-two

Surprise Raid on B. Khatham at Talabah by Qutbah ibn
Amir ibn Hadidah-August, 630CE

During this period Muhammad sent Qutbah ibn Amir at
the head of twenty men to conduct a surprise raid on
B. Khatamah, inhabiting Tabalah near Turbah,
apparently for no good reason other than pure pillage.
The Muslims killed a man who pretended to be dumb.
Then they attacked the infidels while they were
asleep. The Muslims slaughtered whomever they could
and took a great number of camels, goats and women as
booty.

Chapter Nineteen

‘Generally nobody behaves decently when they have
power’-- Kingley Amis (1922-1995)

Terror Eighty-three

Raid Against B. Kilab at al-Zuji by al-Dahak ibn
Sufyan al-Kilabi-August, 630CE

Muhammad sent al-Dahak ibn Sufyan to al-Zuji to invite
the people of B. Kilab to embrace Islam. When they
refused, the Muslims attacked them and forced them to
flee in terror. Among the Muslims was a devoted
Jihadist, al-Asyad. He found his father, Salamah
mounted on his own horse and asked him to accept
Islam. The father berated al-Asyad for entering Islam.
Al-asyad, became angry and hamstrung his father’s
horse. When his father fell down, al-Asyad held his
father till other Muslims surrounded him and killed
the father. To hide this shameful, barbaric and
unconscionable murder, Muslim historians, like Ibn
S’ad specifically says that al-Asyad did not kill,
with his own hands, his father.

Terror Eighty-four

Forced Conversion of Poet Ka’b-August, 630CE

Ka’b ibn Zuhayr, a Meccan poet used to construct
vicious poetry against Muhammad [Remember? the poets
in those days were what journalists are today]. When
Muhammad captured Mecca, he forced Ka’b’s brother,
Bojayr (another poet) to convert to Islam. After
becoming a Muslim Bojayr rejected his brother and came
to Medina. Then he wrote to Ka’b that the Prophet was
executing people who had lampooned him or otherwise
offended him, and that every poet who had done such
thing now fled Mecca and advised him (Ka’b) to come to
Medina and submit to Muhammad or face a certain death.
However, Ka’b replied in displeasing verses against
his brother’s conversion to Islam. Muhammad was highly
incensed and threatened Ka’b with terror. Ka’b, in
desperation, to escape the wrath of Muhammad, sought
asylum elsewhere but was unsuccessful. So with
hopelessness, he presented himself before Muhammad and
pleaded for a pardon. When he embraced Islam, Muhammad
pardoned him.

Terror Eighty-five

Raid Against Abyssinian at Jeddah Coast by Alaqamah b.
Mujazziz-September, 630CE

A group of Abyssinian (Ethiopian) people arrived at
the coastal port city of Jeddah. The Muslims feared
that they were pirates and fled the town. When
Muhammad learned about these purported attacks by
these pirates, he dispatched, Alaqamah b. Mujazziz at
the head of three hundred strong Muslim army. He
chased the Abyssinians (or al-Habasha) and pursued
them to their sanctuary at an island. When the tides
rose, these so-called pirates fled fearing an attack
from the Muslims.

Terror Eighty-six

Revenge Killing at Dhu Qarad by Alaqamah b.
Mujazziz-September, 630CE

After the successful operation on the Abyssinians at
the coast of Jeddah by Alaqamah b. Mujazziz, Muhammad
sent him to take revenge of the killing of the son of
Abu Dhar Ghifari (Terror 40, CH. 11) on the day of Dhu
Qarad. Alqama and his companions returned without
fighting

Terror Eighty-seven

Destruction of B. Tayii idol Yakut at al-Fuls by Ali
b. Talib-September, 630CE

Ali marched out at the head of two hundred horsemen to
plunder the worshipping place of the Tayii people
Although many B. Tayii people were polytheists, its
leader Adi b. Tayii, the son of the legendary generous
Arab philanthropist Hatim Tayii was a Christian.
Previously, he entered the fort of the Thaqif people
at Nakhla who were mostly polytheists. This clearly
indicates that, contrary to what the Muslim historians
write about Jahiliya, the religious tolerance before
the advent of Islam was impeccable in the Arabian
Peninsula. When Muhammad attacked the Thaqif, Adi b.
Hatim Tayii fled and stayed with his own people at
al-Fuls. Ali made an early-morning surprise attack at
al-Fuls, the temple where the idol of Yakut was held.
Yakut was the idol of a horse representing swiftness.
When the Muslim invaders destroyed this idol, Tayii
leader, Adi b. Tayii again took to heels to Syria to
join his Christian allies. The Muslims burned the
al-Fuls temple to ground, plundered it and took plenty
of booty, including three famous swords from under the
rubble of Yakut. They also took a number of men, women
and children as captives.

Among the prisoners was Hatim’s daughter (i.e., Adi b.
Hatim’s sister). Ali brought the sister of Adi and
other captives to Muhammad. Hatim’s daughter and other
Tayii prisoners were incarcerated in a mosque.

She was a very old woman and pleaded mercy from
Muhammad and requested his help to track down her
brother, Adi. On her pitiful, repeated pleading,
Muhammad released her and provided assistance to her
to locate her fugitive brother.

She came to her brother Adi in Syria mounted on the
camel provided by Ali and pleaded with Adi to embrace
Islam as she found Muhammad to be very kind and
considerate. Adi followed her advice, came to Muhammad
and listened to Muhammad’s harangue on Islam. As
stated earlier, Adi b. Hatim was a Christian chief. He
also used to collect one-fourth from the spoils of
war. Muhammad accused him of collecting one-fourth of
spoils from his men contravening the teachings of
Christianity. (Note: Muhammad’s collection of spoils
of war was one-fifth of spoils).

When Muhammad asked the reasons for his hesitancy to
embrace Islam, Adi pointed out to Muhammad that very
few people accepted Islam those days. Then Muhammad
promised a great wealth to whoever embraced his new
faith. He also predicted the capture of Babylon.
Hearing Muhammad’s promise of great wealth, Adi
embraced Islam and Muhammad appointed him again the
chief of B. Tayii.

During this time, Muhammad’s predicted that the symbol
for the last day was that a woman rides a camel
without protection.

Terror Eighty-eight

Raid Against al-Jinab and B. Udrah at Bali by Ukkash
b. Mihsan-October, 630CE

Muhammad sent a strong army, led by Ukkash b. Mihsan
to Bali to subdue the tribe of Udrah and al-Jinab. No
details of this terror campaign are available.

Terror Eighty-nine

Killing of Polytheists is Laudable-October, 630CE

When the various tribes of Arabian Peninsula realized
the savage power of Muhammad’s army, they accepted the
fact that it pays to succumb to Islam--at least
materially. Many of these tribal leaders made
deputations to Muhammad and offered their allegiance
to him in return for a share in the plunder and the
Islamic tax, viz: Jizya and Zakat. Some of the kings
of Himyar (the rulers of Southern Arabia: Yemen,
Hadhramaut, Oman, Bahrain, etc.) did just that. These
kings were the vassals of the Persian Emperor. At that
time the Persian Empire was on decline and these
greedy kings did not mind changing their allegiance to
Muhammad in return for good reward and to maintain
their status-quo. They sent letters to Muhammad
declaring their acceptance of Islam, and their desire
to share the plunder and the revenue raised through
extortion.

Muhammad expressed his satisfaction over the
acceptance of Islam by the Himyar kings. He lauded
them for killing the polytheists and instructed them
to obey Allah and His messenger, pay Zakat, give Khums
(one-fifth of spoils) to Muhammad, the right of
Muhammad of his special selection from the booty
(Safi) in addition to Khums. Muhammad then enumerated
details on Zakat. If a Jew or a Christian embraces
Islam then his rights are the same as that of an
ordinary Muslim. Jews and Christians are not to be
forced to convert as long as they pay the Jizya tax of
one Dinar for every adult or its equivalent in cloth.
If they refuse to pay the Jizya then they become the
enemy of Allah and Muhammad and are to be killed.

Then Muhammad instructed the Himyar kings to hand over
the Zakat and other payments to Muhammad’s tax
collectors until they are satisfied with the
collection. He further wrote thanking the Himyar kings
for killing the polytheists. Muhammad wrote, “Malik B.
Murrah al-Rahawa has reported to me that you were the
first from Himyar to embrace Islam and that you have
killed the polytheists, so rejoice at your good
fortune. The Messenger of God is the master of [both]
your rich and your poor. Alms are neither lawful to
Muhammad nor to his family; it is a purifying tax to
be spent on poor Muslims and the wayfarer…..”

Terror Ninety

The Raid on Tabuk by Muhammad-October, 630CE-April,
631CE

After his return from the siege of Taif, Muhammad
stayed in Medina for a few months, conducting a few
more terror campaigns against the Arab tribes living
nearby. Those raids and plunders have been described
previously. Then, through grapevine, he received the
news that the Byzantines were readying their troops at
Tabuk to attack Medina. This was in retaliation
against the unprovoked attack by the Muslims at
Mu’tah, he surmised. It was also rumoured that the
Roman emperor had paid their soldiers one year’s
salary in advance to buy their loyalty. Muhammad
immediately gave an order of general mobilisation for
a military confrontation with the Byzantine army.

It was a season of hard times with oppressive heat and
a severe dry spell. So, many Muslims were reluctant to
join in the Jihad. They were also quite tired of
endless wars; they wanted to enjoy in peace, their new
found wealth from spoils of wars in peace. Many
approached Muhammad with an alibi to be exempt from
the forthcoming war. Muhammad accepted the excuses of
eighty-two of them, and they were given a reprieve
from this Jihad. Breaking his tradition of maintaining
secrecy on the destination of Jihad, Muhammad
announced that the expedition would be against the
Byzantine king at Tabuk. Despite their dislike for
further Jihad, thirty-thousand Muslims got ready to
take part in this expedition. This was the largest
assembly of Muslim army ever put in motion in Arabia.
Out of the thirty-thousand men, no less than ten
thousand were cavalry. The only problem was the
intense heat and the severe shortage of water.

In the narration of this expedition, we gather some
interesting insight into the Jihadists’ motivation for
raid and plunder. Besides booty, enjoying infidel
women was one of the prime reasons to join Jihad. Here
is one such narration:

A Jihadi, Jadd b. Qays was reluctant to go to Jihad
when Muhammad approached him. He was fond of women. He
replied, “O Messenger of God, please excuse me from
this and do not prompt me. By God, my folk know no
better admirer of women than I. I fear that if I see
the women of the Banu Asfar (i.e., the Byzantine
women) I shall not be able to control myself. Muhammad
turned away from him saying, “I excuse you.” It was
Jadd on whom Allah revealed verse 9:49, berating those
who prefer to stay at home instead of fighting Allah
also revealed verses 9:42-48 admonishing those who are
reluctant to join in Jihad

Another hypocrite incited the people not to join in
the Jihad because of the intense heat and also by
spreading rumours about Muhammad. To reprimand these
hypocrites, Allah released verses 9:81-82, warning
them that the heat of hell is far more intense. Many
hypocrites gathered at the house of Suwaylim, the
newly converted Muslim (previously, a Jew) to prevent
men from joining Muhammad in the looming war. Muhammad
instructed Talha b. Ubaydullah along with a few men to
burn down Suwaylims’s house with all the people
inside. Talha did just that. Most people escaped
unharmed. However, one person broke his leg while
jumping from the roof of the house.

Muhammad sought financial help from the well-to-do
people and many of them contributed generously towards
this adventure. His son-in law Uthman b. Affan donated
one thousand (1,000) Dinars, the highest contribution.
However, a few Jihadists were turned away because
Muhammad could not provide them with the resources to
fight the war. They were chagrined. Some Jihadists
were provided with only a camel and some dates to join
in the expedition.

Despite the odds, having made full preparation for the
war, Muhammad set out for Tabuk with full alacrity.
Tabuk was about 250 miles from Medina, on the border
of the Byzantine Empire. At first, he pitched his tent
at Thaniyat al-Wada. Abdullah ibn Ubayy, Muhammad’s
nemesis joined him but he encamped separately from
Muhammad. Then, when Muhammad started to march for
Tabuk, Abdallah ibn Ubayy stayed behind with the
hypocrites and the doubters.

So, Allah revealed verse 9:48 regarding the futility
of the machinations of the hypocrites. Abdallah ibn
Ubayy died soon after Muhammad returned from Tabuk.

Muhammad left behind Ali b. Abi Talib to look after
his family. Some hypocrites angered Ali by spreading
the slander that he was a burden to Muhammad. A
furious Ali, taking his weapons, set off to meet
Muhammad who was already on his way to Tabuk. Ali
traveled swiftly and met Muhammad who was camped at
al-Jurf. He then expressed his dismay at what the
hypocrites were fabricating about him. Muhammad told
Ali that hypocrites had lied; Muhammad asked Ali to
return to his family and assured him that he Ali was
to him as Aaron was to Moses with the exception that
there would be no prophet after him (Muhammad).
Pleased and satisfied with the answer of Muhammad, Ali
went back to his family and Muhammad resumed his
journey for Tabuk.

While Muhammad was at al-Hijr, people drew water from
a well to drink. After departing al-Hijr, he forbade
his people from drinking or making ablution with water
from a well in an area inhabited by Allahless people.
If they used that water to make dough to prepare food
then that food should be fed to the camels. He also
forbade that none of his people should go out alone at
night without a companion. One Jihadi violated this
rule. He went alone at night to relieve himself and
was choked on his way. Another Jihadist went out alone
at night to look after his camel; he was carried away
by the violent sandstorm. When Muhammad prayed for the
man who was choked, he recovered. The other man was
blown away and somehow returned to Medina.

When people complained about no water, Muhammad prayed
to Allah and He quickly sent a heavy cloud and it
rained very profoundly.

Muhammad moved on. On his way, his camel strayed and
his companions went searching for it. One hypocrite
then said that even being a prophet, Muhammad did not
know where his camel was. Having heard of such an
insult on his prophethood, Muhammad predicted where
the strayed camel could be located. The searcher of
the camel went there and found the lost camel.

A band of hypocrites joining the Tabuk expedition
expressed their doubt about winning the battle against
the Byzantine and said some words to that effect. When
Muhammad showed his displeasure at what they had
uttered, these hypocrites told him that they were
simply playing with words. On this, Allah revealed
9:65 that foretold of the hypocritical playful words
of them.

Terror Ninety-one

Forced Conversion and Forced Jizya on Christians and
the Jews-December, 631CE

When the Muslim army was quite near to Tabuk, they
found that there was no mobilisation of the Byzantine
force whatsoever. The entire expedition was of no use
and many of them became frustrated that they missed a
great booty. To please his greedy Jihadists, Muhammad
planned to raid the nearby tribes and to extort money
from them. So, when he reached Tabuk he announced his
threat to the nearby rulers. He sent a letter to
Yuhanna b. Ru’bah (John), the Christian prince of Ayla
asking him to submit to Islam or face being attacked.
The prince quickly came with his cross and embraced
Islam. He then concluded a treaty with Muhammad that
forced him to pay Jizya tax of three hundred (300)
Dinars (US$ 15,000) per year (i.e., one Dinar
per-head, as there were three hundred inhabitants
there) and, in the event of not following Muhammad’s
injunction, old people are to be slain and the
children to be taken as captives. Muhammad also
ordered John to pay tributes to his favourite
commanders like Zayd, Khalid, Maslama…etc.

Similar treaties were also signed with the Jewish
settlements of Makna, Adhruh and Jarba (an ancient
fortress on the Roman road from Busra to Red sea).
They were required to submit to Islam. To each was
given a specified tax to be paid and Muhammad bound
them to afford refuge and aid to any Muslim traveler
or Muslims merchants who might need their assistance.
Muhammad fixed the tax as fourth of whatever they
produced.

A few more acts of terror while at Tabuk will be
illustrated in the next part of this episode.

Muhammad wandered over the border for ten nights,
inviting all to fight or make peace with him. Then he
returned to Medina.

The last (or the second last) Sura (9) was revealed
during this period. A few of the most notorious verses
on terror e.g., the verse of ‘sword’ (9:5) was
revealed during this time, after Muhammad’s return
from Tabuk. When he returned to Medina he rebuked
those who stayed back in Medina without his
permission. Allah approved His messenger’s admonition
in verses 9:39-51. The most censured were the Bedouins
who stayed away (9:97) from the Jihad.

It is claimed by some biographers that, while
returning from Tabuk an attempt was made by some of
Muhammad’s soldiers (hypocrites) to kill him by
throwing him over a cliff. However, these ‘hypocrites’
were not successful in their attempt, as Allah cast
fear in them. When this attempt on Muhammad’s life was
unsuccessful, Allah revealed the verse 9:73-74 asking
Muhammad to be harsh with the infidels and the
hypocrites.

Chapter Twenty

‘Here is America struck by Almighty Allah…..’--- Osama
b. Ladin

Terror Ninety-two

Third Raid at Dumat al-Jandal: Forced Jizya on Ukaydir
by Khalid b. Walid-March-April, 631

After the withdrawal from Tabuk, and after the signing
of a peace treaty with a few non-Muslim tribes,
Muhammad felt secure. His terror tactics had been
immensely successful, and he found no reason to move
further. The only one he feared now was Ukaydir ibn
Abd al-Malik al-Kindi, the Christian prince of Dumat
al-Jandal (Duma). Without any firm evidence, Muhammad
spread a rumour that Ukaydir was preparing to launch a
treacherous attack on him. So, while readying the
Muslim soldiers to return to Medina from Tabuk, he
sent Khalid ibn Walid with five hundred cavalrymen to
deal with this threat. The rest of the Muslim army
were to return to Medina.

Khalid seized this opportunity and attacked Duma. He
met with very little resistance in the city. Its
gates, however, remained tightly closed. When Khaild
attacked Ukaydir’s fort, the latter was at the roof of
his fortress with his wife. Ukaydir’s brother, Hasan,
hearing some noise from the wild cows, mounted his
horse and went out to hunt them. Khalid seized Hassan
and killed him as he (Hasan) returned home from the
hunting trip. Then he threatened to kill Ukaydir,
unless the gates of the city were flung open. Ukaydir
yielded. The Muslim army entered the fort and caught
Ukaydir. Khalid took the gold-brocaded gown of Hassan
and sent that to Muhammad through a courier. On
receiving this golden gown, Muhammad slighted these
royal outfits by saying, that Sa’d b. Muadh’s napkin
in paradise was better than that. Then the Muslim army
plundered the city of Dumah. They took two thousand
camels, eight hundred sheep and four hundred armoury
suits and a huge cache of arms. Khalid then returned
to Tabuk with the booty, Ukaydir and another of
Ukaydir’s brothers, Musad. When Khalid brought Ukaydir
and his brother to Muhammad, the latter spared their
lives on condition of payment of Jizya tax. Ukaydir
and his brother Musad were released and they returned
to their village kingdom. Sunaan Abu Dawud records
that Muhammad spared Ukaydir’s life in exchange of
Jizya.

Book 19, Number 3031:

Narrated Anas ibn Malik ; Uthman ibn Abu Sulayman:

   The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) sent Khalid
ibn al-Walid to Ukaydir of Dumah. He was
seized and they brought him to him (i.e. the
Prophet). He spared his life and made peace
with him on condition that he should pay
jizyah (poll-tax).

As recorded in Sahih Bukhari 1.2.24, on this occasion
Muhammad also declared that he had been ordered to
fight the non-Muslims.

Volume 1, Book 2, Number 24:

   Narrated Ibn 'Umar:

       Allah's Apostle said: "I have been
ordered (by Allah) to fight against
the people until they testify that
none has the right to be worshipped
but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah's
Apostle, and offer the prayers
perfectly and give the obligatory
charity, so if they perform a that,
then they save their lives an property
from me except for Islamic laws and
then their reckoning (accounts) will
be done by Allah."

Terror Ninety-three

The Destruction of Wadd at Dumat al-Jandal by Khalid
ibn Walid-April, 631CE

Wadd, representing manly power, was the statue of a
huge man, covered with two robes, clothed with one and
cloaked with the other, carrying a sword on his waist
and a bow on his shoulder. It was probably located in
one of the palatial buildings of Duma. When Khalid b.
Walid was at Duma, Muhammad gave him instructions to
destroy this beautiful statue. Khalid proceeded to
demolish the statue but faced resistance from B.Abd
Wadd and B. Amir al-Ajdar who fought to defend the
statue. In the fight that ensued, Khalid defeated
them; then he smashed the statute into pieces and
demolished the shrine. A man of B. Abd Wadd was
killed. His grief stricken mother fell over his body
and died.

Terror Ninety-four

The Destruction of an Opposition Mosque at Dhu Awan by
Muhammad--April, 631CE

Proceeding further from Tabuk on his way to Medina,
Muhammad halted at Dhu Awan at Quba (about 4 kms. from
Medina), an hour’s journey from Medina. There, an
opposition Muslim group had built a mosque.
Previously, while Muhammad was making preparations for
the march to Tabuk, this group of Muslims approached
Muhammad and said, “O Messenger of God, we have built
a mosque for the sick and needy and for rainy and cold
nights, and we would like you to visit us and pray for
us.” Because Muhammad was too busy with his
preparations for Tabuk, he excused himself from
visiting this mosque but assured the dissident group
that he would call on their mosque while returning to
Medina (from Tabuk).

When Muhammad halted at Dhu Awan, he accused its
builders of being unjust and sent a band of Jihadists
to burn and destroy the newly constructed mosque. He
said to his band of destroyers, “Go to this mosque
whose owners are unjust people and destroy and burn
it.” His band of arsonists entered the mosque and set
fire to it when it was filled with people assembled
for the evening prayer. The worshippers dispersed in
terror. Allah promptly sent down verse 9:107, 110,
justifying the destruction of opposition mosques. To
further validate his gutting of this mosque, Muhammad
concocted the story that he suspected that the
builders of the ‘Mosque of Dissent’ were planning to
assassinate him.

Then he extolled the virtue of the first mosque (known
as Masjid Takwa) that was built by him at Quba when he
migrated to Medina and where he had asked his
followers to pray. This instruction is written in the
Qur’an in verses 9:108-109.

After the Jihadists returned to Medina, some of them
started selling their arms, thinking that Jihad had
ended; but Muhammad stopped that saying, “A party of
my people will continue fighting for truth till the
emergence of Antichrist.” He also claimed that Allah
had ordered him to fight the infidels until the entire
world is converted to Islam. Here is a Hadith from
Sahih Bukhari on this:

Volume 1, Book 2, Number 24:

Narrated Ibn 'Umar:

   Allah's Apostle said: "I have been ordered (by
Allah) to fight against the people until they
testify that none has the right to be
worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is
Allah's Apostle, and offer the prayers
perfectly and give the obligatory charity, so
if they perform that, then they save their
lives an property from me except for Islamic
laws and then their reckoning (accounts) will
be done by Allah."

Terror Ninety-five

Destruction of al-Lat at Taif by Abu Sufyan b.
Harb-April, 631CE

Even after ten months since Muhammad lifted his siege
on the Thaqif at Taif, the people there still
practiced idolatry. As stated in an earlier part of
this series, Urwa b. Masud, a Thaqif and the Quraysh
negotiator at Hudaibiya went to Yemen to train on the
use of war machines. On his return he found that all
Meccans, except the tribes of Taif (i.e., Thaqif) had
submitted to Islam. Realising the potential material
gain to be had, he went to Medina and embraced Islam
in the presence of Muhammad. Then Urwa wanted to
return to Taif and invited his people to enter Islam
too. Muhammad cautioned him saying that his people
would fight him viciously because of his conversion to
Islam, but Urwah was very confident that he would
prevail.

After arriving at Taif in the evening, Urwa announced
his conversion in public and invited other Taif people
to follow suit. Ascending the upper balcony of his
palace, he called out the cry for prayer (Adhaan) at
the top of his voice. The Taif people were greatly
angered by his audacity, and showered arrows at him
from all sides. He was gravely wounded in the arm and
later died of this wound. When the news of his death
reached Muhammad, he greatly praised Urwa for his
bravery. Muhammad compared him to the prophet Yasin,
who was slain by his people.

The Thaqif people were pleased at the killing of Urwa,
but their joy was very short-lived. They were now
continuously harassed by attack from B. Hawazin under
Malik These ferocious attacks cut off the cattle in
the field, and destroyed the wells and pasture lands.
Their resources started to dwindle fast and soon they
did not have enough strength to fight back the Muslim
Arabs surrounding them. So they sent a deputation of
six Thaqif chiefs with fifteen or twenty followers to
Medina to Muhammad. The leader of this delegation was
Abd Yalil b. Amr b. Umayr. They started their journey
a fortnight after Muhammad’s return to Medina from
Tabuk. When the Taif party arrived at Medina, Muhammad
gave them a cordial reception and pitched a tent near
the mosque for their accommodation. The Thaqif
delegates had no choice but to convert to Islam before
starting to negotiate with Muhammad.

A treaty was then drafted between the Thaqif people
and Muhammad. During this stage they requested
Muhammad to not demolish the idol of al-Lat for three
years; Muhammad promptly declined their request.

Then they reduced the time to a year but Muhammad
refused-then for a month; still, Muhammad rejected
their plea. The Thaqif people simply wanted a little
time to prepare their women folk to bear the abject
sorrow of demolishing al-Lat. The delegation then
requested that they be exempted from prayer and from
destroying their idols with their own hands. Allah
sent down verse 17:73 warning Muhammad not to give any
concession on prayers. So, on the question of prayer,
Muhammad was stiff; on the matter of using their own
hands to destroy the idol, Muhammad agreed that they
would be exempt from it. Thus, the Thaqif people were
compelled to embrace Islam on Muhammad’s terms.
Nevertheless, Rodinson writes that Muhammad did make
some compromise on observing the fast, i.e., he made
fasting less strict for the Thaqif people. Even though
they were very distraught, they said, “O Muhammad, we
will give in to you on this issue even though it is
demeaning.” Curiously, the treaty with the Thaqif
people mentions Muhammad as Muhammad ibn Abdallah and
not Muhammad the Messenger of Allah.

After the Thaqif delegation left Muhammad, he sent Abu
Sufyan b. Harb and al-Mughirah b. Shubah to destroy
al-Lat. Al-Lat, a more recent idol than Manat, stood
at Taif. She was a cubic rock. When they arrived at
Taif, al-Mughirah demolished the idol of al-Lat with a
pickaxe, then he burnt the temple to the ground. After
the obliteration of al-Lat and her temple, al-Mughirah
warned that all the Thaqif people will be killed if
they retaliated. The women of Thaqif came out wailing
bitterly and lamenting with their heads uncovered.
After the idol of al-Lat was demolished, al-Mughirah
took from under its foundation its jewellery and
ornaments that were made of gold and onyx and sent
them to Abu Sufyan. Muhammad instructed Abu Sufyan to
pay off, from this loot, the debts of Urwah b. Masud
and Urwa’s brother, al-Aswad b. Masud.

With the destruction of al-Lat and the conversion of
Thaqif, the subjugation of Hejaz to Islam was now
complete.

Terror Ninety-six

The Genocide at Jurash, Yemen by Surad b. Abd
Allah-October, 631CE

Muhammad now envisaged the conquest of entire southern
Arabia, especially Yemen. His previous attempts on
this part of Arabia were not successful. Now that the
entire Hejaz was under the grip of Islam, he
commissioned Surad b. Abd Allah to attack Yemen.

Having secured the authority from Muhammad to fight
(i.e., to kill) the polytheists and having been
provided with an army to do so, Surad b. Abd Allah
al-Azdi made an attack at Jurash, a closed city,
inhabited by the Yemeni tribes. Surad’s old enemy
Khattam had taken refuge at this palace/fort. When the
Yemenis learnt that the Muslim army was marching to
strike, they shut themselves up in their city. The
siege lasted for a month but Yemeni tribes would not
come out of their sanctuary. So, Surad pretended to
retreat. The Jurash inhabitants, thinking that the
danger was over, came out from their refuge. The
Muslims attacked them from behind with ruthless
viciousness and inflicted heavy casualties.

Before this attack came to the Jurash people, they had
sent a team of two men to Muhammad for talks on peace.
While they were at Medina, they learned that Surad had
been despatched to Jurash but the team stayed in
Medina while Surad was conducting the genocide there
(Jurash). So, while with Muhammad, they enquired him
of what was going on with their people at their land.
Muhammad told the team that the Jurash people were
being slaughtered like camels. Then Abu Bakr or Uthman
advised the team of Jurash to implore Muhammad to save
their people. They did accordingly, and Muhammad
prayed to Allah for their people. When this team
returned to Jurash they were astonished at the scale
of pogrom by the Muslims.

With fear and terror the delegation of Jurash then
returned to Muhammad and embraced Islam.

Terror Ninety-seven

Plunder and Forced Conversion of B. Nakha at Mudhij,
Yemen by Ali-October, 631

Then Ali led a campaign with three hundred horsemen to
Yemen against the B. Nakha, residing at Mudhij,
announcing to them an ultimatum to accept Islam or
face death. This was the first terror raid in Yemen
with cavalry by Ali. This was also the first army of
Hejaz led by Ali ever sent to conquer Yemen. Hitherto,
it was always the Yemen army that was sent to conquer
the Hejaz. At first, the tribe refused to accept
Islam. A battle ensued and Ali’s army killed twenty
enemy men. In the end the B. Nakha lost the fight,
surrendered to Ali and embraced Islam. Some other
tribes of the Mudhaj in Yemen also followed them. The
Muslim raiders took hold of anything they could
catch---booty, spoils, women, children, camels and
goats. Ali returned with the booty and on reaching
Mecca, joined Muhammad in his last pilgrimage.

During this raid and plunder, Ali (Muhammad’s
son-in-law) engaged in sex with captive women and
Muhammad was quite pleased with his son-in-law’s
lasciviousness. Here is a Hadith from Sahih Bukhari on
the moral rectitude of Hazrat Ali:

Volume 5, Book 59, Number 637:

   Narrated Buraida:

   The Prophet sent 'Ali to Khalid to bring the
Khumus (of the booty) and I hated Ali, and
'Ali had taken a bath (after a sexual act with
a slave-girl from the Khumus). I said to
Khalid, "Don't you see this (i.e. Ali)?" When
we reached the Prophet I mentioned that to
him. He said, "O Buraida! Do you hate Ali?" I
said, "Yes." He said, "Do you hate him, for he
deserves more than that from the Khumlus."

The B. Nakha then surrendered themselves to Muadh,
Muhammad’s envoy in Yemen. Two hundred of them set out
to tender a personal allegiance to Muhammad. They
reached Medina at the beginning of the eleventh year
of Hijra. This was the last deputation received by
Muhammad. When Muhammad sent Muadh as the governor of
Yemen he told him not to plunder the Yemeni people if
they wilfully surrendered to Islam; otherwise, he was
to take the best of their possessions. Here is a
Hadith from Sahih Bukhari containing Muhammad’s
instruction to Muadh:

Volume 2, Book 24, Number 573:

Narrated Abu Ma'bad,:

   (the slave of Ibn Abbas) Allah's Apostle said
to Muadh when he sent him to Yemen, "You will
go to the people of the Scripture. So, when
you reach there, invite them to testify that
none has the right to be worshipped but Allah,
and that Muhammad is His Apostle. And if they
obey you in that, tell them that Allah has
enjoined on them five prayers in each day and
night. And if they obey you in that tell them
that Allah has made it obligatory on them to
pay the Zakat which will be taken from the
rich among them and given to the poor among
them. If they obey you in that, then avoid
taking the best of their possessions, and be
afraid of the curse of an oppressed person
because there is no screen between his
invocation and Allah."

Terror Ninety-eight

Forced Conversion of Hamdan People at Yemen by
Ali-December, 631CE

With the successes of wanton genocide at Jurash and
the forced conversion at Mudhij in Yemen, Muhammad now
wanted to bring under the sword of Islam all the
tribes living in Yemen. He, at first, sent Khalid b.
Walid to convert all the people of Yemen. Khaild spent
six months there inviting them to Islam but with very
little success. So, Muhammad asked Khalid to return
and sent Ali as his replacement. This was Ali’s second
venture in Yemen. When Ali arrived in the city of
Hamdan in Yemen, he offered his morning prayer there;
people gathered around him; Ali lined up his soldiers
in a row and read out the letter from Muhammad,
commanding the people there to enter Islam or face the
sword. Having heard of the scale of genocide at
Jurash, all the terrified Hamdan people embraced Islam
on the same day. When Muhammad received the news of
conversion of Hamdan people through fear and coercion,
he offered peace to them. Soon after the conversion of
the Hamdan people, the rest of Yemen followed suit.

Terror Ninety-nine

Forced Conversion of Najran at North Yemen by Khalid
b. Walid-February, 632CE

This raid took place towards the last days of
Muhammad, when there prevailed relative “Islamic
peace” in Medina. Muhammad sent Khalid to Najran, in
north Yemen against B. al-Harith b. Ka’b to call on
the people of Najran (Christians, idolaters and those
not in treaty with Muhammad) to embrace Islam or fight
the Muslims. Najran was famous for its largely
prosperous Christian community. There was also a
sizeable number of pagans who lived amicably with
their Christian brethren. All the Najran people
belonged to the tribe of B. al-Harith. On arriving at
Najran, Khalid issued an ultimatum, giving the
residents three days notice to submit to Islam or face
death.

He proclaimed, “O people, accept Islam, and you will
be safe.”

The Najran people were now forced to accept Islam.
Khalid stayed with them teaching them the Qur’an and
Sunnah.of Muhammad.Then Khalid wrote to Muhammad
informing him of the acceptance of Islam by B.
al-Harith people under terror.

Muhammad was pleased that B. al-Harith people accepted
Islam through intimidation and without fighting. He
wrote to Khalid to return to Medina and to bring along
a delegation of B. al-Harith. When Khalid arrived with
the delegates, Muhammad asked Khalid who those people
were because they looked more like Indians. When
Khalid informed the messenger of Allah that they were
Yemeni Arabs, Muhammad admonished them repeatedly for
resorting to fighting on previous occasions. He said,
“Had Khalid b. al-Walid not written to me that you had
surrendered and had not fought, I would have thrown
your heads under your feet.”

B. al-Harith people were the sons of slaves and had
never committed injustice or fought unjustly. But
Muhammad insisted that they did fight back in the
pre-Islamic days. On this they replied, “O Messenger
of God, we used to overpower those who fought us
because we were the sons of slaves and were united,
not divided, and never committed an injustice against
anyone.” Muhammad agreed on what they said and he
appointed Qays b. al-Husayn as their leader.

Muhammad appointed Amr b. Hazm al-Ansari to instruct
the B. al-Harith on Islam and to collect Zakat from
them. He wrote a few instructions for Amr before he
(Amr) set out for Najran: To fulfil contracts (5:1),
to fear Allah (16:128), none but the purified shall
touch the Qur’an (56:79), be severe with those who are
unjust and inform people about the good news on
paradise (11:18) and warn them of hell-fire, forbid
people from praying in one garment unless it be
garment whose ends could be doubled over the
shoulders, can’t wrap oneself in one garment, can’t
appeal to tribes and kinsmen when there is a dispute
but appeal only to Allah, those who appeal to tribes
and kinsmen should be put to the sword, perform
ablution thoroughly with plentiful of water, offer
prayers at appointed times, Ghusl (bath) is obligatory
for prayers in congregation, the tax collector can
take one-fifth of booty and Zakat from landed
property-one-tenth from the land watered by streams
and rain, one-twentieth from land watered by a leather
bucket; two sheep for every ten camels, a cow for
every forty cows and a bull or a cow calf for every
thirty cows; one sheep for every forty sheep at
pasture.

Another version of this raid says that al-Harith was a
Christian Bishop who refused to accept Islam. So, a
delegate of them came to Medina to discuss theological
matters. It is said that the Muslims were shocked and
dazzled by the richness of the bishop of B. al-Harith
when he visited Medina. Allah revealed verse 3:61
admonishing those who dispute with His Messenger In
the end, al-Harith and his people decided to pay the
Jizya tax to escape regular Muslim invasion in their
territory. Muhammad accepted their decision and the
Christian delegate returned to Najran.

The Jizya tax was set as one dinar(or its substitute
in clothes) for every adult, male or female, free or
slave. If the Jews and the Christians refuse to pay
Jizya tax then they become the enemy of Allah (so,
liable to be killed).

Terror One-hundred

Destruction of Idol at Dhul Khalasa in Yemen and
Forced Conversion of Various Tribes by Jarir ibn Abd
Allah-April, 632CE

Having witnessed, through terror, plunder and wanton
genocide the ferocious power of Islam, many Yemeni
tribes had no choice but to submit themselves to
Muhammad and Islam. Amongst the Yemeni tribes who
readily surrendered to Islam were the B. Murad, B.
Zubaid, inhabiting the sea coast of Yemen and B.
Kahlan who lived in Khaulan and B. Bajila. Muhammad
sent Jarir ibn Abd Allah to Dhul Khalasa and forced
the B. Bajila to destroy, with their own hands their
famous idol of there. This idol of B. Bajilah was
known as the Ka’ba of Yemen was a white quartz idol
that stood between Mecca and Sa’na. The invading
Muslims destroyed the temple, set it on fire and
killed a hundred B. Bajila men including the custodian
of the idol temple. Another two hundred men, belonging
to B. Qubafah were also slaughtered. Other tribe of
Yemen that was forced to submit to Muhammad was B.
Jorsh. Sahih Bukhari narrates this genocide and
plunder this way:

Volume 5, Book 59, Number 641:

Narrated Jarir:

   In the Pre-lslamic Period of Ignorance there
was a house called Dhu-l-Khalasa or Al-Ka'ba
Al-Yamaniya or Al-Ka'ba Ash-Shamiya. The
Prophet said to me, "Won't you relieve me from
Dhu-l-Khalasa?" So I set out with
one-hundred-and-fifty riders, and we
dismantled it and killed whoever was present
there. Then I came to the Prophet and informed
him, and he invoked good upon us and Al-Ahmas
(tribe).

A similar Hadith is narrated in 5.59.642 of Sahih
Bukhari

After completing the genocide at Dhu Khalasa, while
Jarrir was returning to Medina, a messenger brought
the news of that Muhammad had died. This is recorded
in Sahih Bukhari in Hadith 5.59.645.

C O N C L U S I O N

This authentic compilation of the lengthy history of
Islamic propagation has proved beyond a shadow of
doubt that the central doctrine behind all the
mindless terror, murder, and genocide carried out by
the Jihadists of today is deeply rooted in the belief
system of Islam. It is foolhardy and rather too
simplistic to assume that the war on Islamic terror is
not a war with Islam. A good Muslim (i.e. a Muslim by
the Book) is a terrorist---it is the main message of
the Qur’an, the holiest book of Islamic faith. Read
the Qur’an from the beginning to the end, several
times, and you will understand why the Islamic
terrorists do what they are doing today all over the
world. Read all the chapters of this book one more
time and you will, for sure, grasp a true picture of
the messenger of Allah, his aims, objectives and most
importantly, his plans, methods, actions and all the
logistics necessary to achieve the goal that he had
set for the Muslims to achieve; that is, to make Islam
the world religion even at the cost of the death of
millions of lives.

A Muslim who does not resort to Jihad (read violence,
terror and murder) in order to force Islam on the
world population is not a Muslim at all. Most Muslims
do not follow Islam by the Book (Qur’an); and that is
why they are not terrorists. Once they come to learn
the ‘real Islam’-- the Islam preached and practiced by
Muhammad -- they get a shock, bewildered and
confused-they just search where could they find the
‘peaceful, tolerant, non-violent’ Islam that they
always thought the religion to be. Alas! There is no
peace in Islam, there is no tolerance in Islam; there
is no compromise or negotiation in Islam. There is
only ‘submission’ in Islam-the submission to the sword
of Islam, as Muhammad said so eloquently, ‘Paradise is
under the shades of swords (Sahih Bukhari; 4.52.73).’

Let us not kid ourselves; the politically correct
world may not be at war with Islam, but surely, Islam
itself is at perpetual with the civilized world. In
part one of this treatise it was mentioned that this
war of Islam against the entire civilized world had
been declared during the second pledge of Aqaba, when
the nascent community of the Jihadists declared they
were ready to fight and give up their lives for the
protection of Muhammad and his Islam. The Islamists
will not end this war until all people on earth
surrender (read submit) to Islam, and, if necessary,
by the sword (read war) and a wide slaughter. Imagine
what will happen if the ‘true Muslims’ are able to
stockpile a few nuclear bombs or biological and
chemical weapons and their means of delivery. Nothing
will stop them from dropping those bombs in the
Western capitals, such as New York, Washington,
London, Paris, Madrid, Brussels…..and so on.

Please consider the economy of Jihad and Islamic
terror. Please think how cheaply the Islamists run
their terror operations, how inexpensively they buy
the lives of young Jihadists to be sacrificed to
commit un-imaginable terror and murder. It costs them
virtually next to nothing, save for their training and
the logistics, to recruit these live terrorists, and
despatch them on terror missions. Please reflect on
what motivates these terrorists to do what they
do---it is none other than the Qur’an and ahadith.
Islamic terrorism emanates from the teachings and
practices of Muhammad. This book has proved this
beyond any doubt by citing episode after episode, and
by pointing out many uncanny similarities between the
Islamic terrorism of today and those of Muhammad’s
time. The Jihadists of today are following the exact
footsteps of Muhammad---make no mistake on this. While
the world is spending billions of dollars to fight
Islamic terrorism militarily, doesn’t it make more
sense to spend a fraction of that billion to unmask
the fascistic face of Islam and the doctrine of
terrorism that is an integral part of it? Let the vast
majority of innocent Muslims who are not terrorists
and who do not have an iota of what Islam is all about
get this shocking message that Islam is not what they
always thought it to be---that is, a peaceful
religion. The sooner they realise this appalling
truth, the sooner they will become a part of the
civilised world and be respected. So long as they are
in denial, they will, for sure, be a community
despised and looked upon with suspicion. Let the
Muslims themselves start fighting Islamic terrorism by
its root.

T H E   E N D

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